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1801 ;  3rd President  Thomas Jefferson
Not only one of the 'Founding Fathers of the
USA'
, but also a crucial pawn in the 'Louisiana Purchase'.
1801
 
Thomas Jefferson
Not only one of the 'Founding Fathers of the
USA'
, but also a crucial pawn in the 'Louisiana Purchase'.
1797 ;  2nd President  John Adams
The very well educated John Adams succeeded George Washington. Both were 'Founding Fathers of the
USA
'
.
1797
 
John Adams
The very well educated John Adams succeeded George Washington. Both were 'Founding Fathers of the
USA
'
.
1795
 
N-W Indian WAR ends
The WAR ended.....

*** more later ***
1795
 
 
Cherokee - American WAR ends
The WAR ended....

*** more later ***
1789 ;  1st President  George Washington
As a prominent member of the 'Founding Fathers' he was chosen to be the first President of the
United States of America
.
1789
 
George Washington
As a prominent member of the 'Founding Fathers' he was chosen to be the first President of the
United States of America
.
1788
 
Raleigh chosen Capital
Raleigh chosen Capital of North Carolina
1787
 
Shay's Rebellion ends
The Shay's Rebellion ended.

*** more later ***
1786
 
Shay's Rebellion
Beginning of Shay's Rebellion.

*** more later ***
1785
 
N-W Indian WAR
Beginning of the North-West Indian War.....

*** more later ***
1783
 
Am. Revolutionary WAR ends
Am. Revolutionary WAR ends with the Peace of Paris.

*** more later ***
1776
 
Cherokee - American WAR
Beginning of Cherokee - American War....

*** more later ***
1776
 
The 4th of July:  Independence Day
The First 13 colonies, who were in a way represented by the 'Founding Fathers', declared themselves independent and formed the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.
1776
 
The 'Founding Fathers'
The 'Founding Fathers' were the initiators and writers of the Declaration of Independence.
1775
 
American Revolutionary WAR
Beginning of the American Revolutionary War...

*** more later ***
1774
 
Lord Dunmore's WAR
Hostilities arose in nowadays West-Virginia because of the use of hunting grounds by
Shawnee
villagers; Lord Dunmore's War was a fact. The
British
were victorious when the Battle of Point Pleasant was won.
1767
 
Townshend Acts
Townshend Acts.

*** more later ***
1766
 
 
Pontiac's WAR ends
End of Pontiac's War.

*** more later ***
1765
 
Stamp Act
Stamp Act.

*** more later ***
1763
 
Pontiac's WAR
Beginning of Pontiac's War.

*** more later ***
1763
 
 
 
 
Royal Proclamation Line
The Royal Proclamation Line.

*** more later ***
1763
 
 
 
 
French & Indian WAR ends
End of French and Indian War.

*** more later ***
1755
 
 
 
Father Le Loutre's WAR ends
End of Father Le Loutre's War.

*** more later ***
1754
 
 
 
French & Indian WAR
Beginning of the French and Indian War.....

*** more later ***
1749
 
 
Father Le Loutre's WAR
Beginning of Father Le Loutre's War.....

*** more later ***
1748
 
Ohio Company founded
The Ohio Company was founded to gain lands and block
French
expansion.
1748
 
 
 
 
King George's WAR ends
End of King George's War.

*** more later ***
1744
 
 
 
King George's WAR
Beginning of King George's War.

*** more later ***
1733
 
Georgia founded
Georgia founded by James Oglethorpe.
1729
 
Baltimore founded
Baltimore founded mainly because of the need for a harbor to improve the tobacco trade.
1725
 
 
End of Dummer's WAR
End of Dummer's WAR.

*** more later ***
1722
 
Dummer's WAR
Dummer's WAR.

*** more later ***
1718
 
'Blackbeard' ambushed
'Blackbeard' ambushed.

*** more later ***
1718
 
New Orleans founded
New Orleans founded by J.B. Le Moyne.

*** more later ***
1713
 
 
 
 
Queen Anne's WAR ended
The end of Queen Anne's war.

*** more later ***
1702
 
 
 
Queen Anne's WAR
Queen Anne's war.

*** more later ***
1701
 
 
The Great Peace of Montreal
The
French
and
Iroquois
sign a Peace Treaty; this actually ends the Beaver Wars.
1697
 
 
 
 
King William's WAR ended
The 1st of the French and Indian Wars came to an end; a status quo ante bellum was agreed upon.
1693
 
College of William & Mary
1688
 
 
 
King William's WAR
In North-America the
French
and the British both wanted a monopoly on fur trade. This was the main reason for the 1st French and Indian War.
1681
 
Pennsylvania granted
Pennsylvania granted by Charles II
1677
 
 
Susquehannock defeated
The
English
had turned against their former ally since the Peace Treaty with the Iroquois. Though it was the Iroquois who decisively defeated the Susquehannock.
Part of the Beaver Wars.
1676
 
⚔ Bacon's Rebellion
1676
 
 
King Philip's WAR ends
The war ended when resistance faded after the death of Metacomet at Mount Hope.
1675
 
King Philip's WAR
The
English
had established a reasonable understanding with inhabitants of local tribes; in particular with the Wampanoag and their Sachem Massasoit. His son Metacomet originally continued this good trade relation. Though, the situation changed when in the East the
English
wanted more land and in the West their traditional enemy, the Iroquois, became more hostile.
1674
 
 
Peace Treaty Iroquois & English

Part of the Beaver Wars.
1674
 
'Nieuw Nederland' ceased to exist
The Treaty of Westminster was signed in London. The
English
claimed again 'Nieuw Nederland' on which the Dutch had to agree upon; they had no choice. 'Nieuw Amsterdam' was renamed to New York.
1673
 
Restoration of 'Nieuw Nederland'
On the European Continent the
Netherlands
were since 1672 (the disaster year) again at war with
England
amongst wars with France and others. Despite the situation the Dutch Government wanted to retake 'Nieuw Nederland' and ordered Cornelius Evertsen to sail out; his mission was successful.
1673
 
Shipment of women diminished
The plan had worked and cities grew very well, though it was rather late; the
English
remained very much ahead on the account of citizens. And therefore, the transportation of loads of many women diminished.
1670
 
Charlestown founded
Charlestown founded South-Carolina
1670
 
Hudson Bay Company founded
The
French
men Radisson and des Groseilliers didn't get the means from their superiors to start fur-trading in Northern regions. Mainly therefor they contacted the
English
. With the support of the Duke of Cumberland, Prince Rupert, their efforts were viable. A new economically successful Company was born, though hostilities between local tribes,
New France
and
New England
increased.
1664
 
English claimed 'Nieuw Nederland'
The Dutch colonists surrendered without any real resistance at the time.
1663
 
The Kings Daughters
Despite the fact that
French
fur traders explored the New World much sooner than other foreigners in Eastern N.Am., it was the
English
settlements that grew more rapidly because of a policy focused on colonizing. After realizing this Louis XIV changed his concept and sent shipments with loads of women in just a decade.
1663
 
 
Iroquois repulsed
With help from the
English
the Susquehannock initially repulsed the Iroquois.
Part of the Beaver Wars.
1663
 
Province of Carolina officially founded
New official foundation of Carolina because the old charter of 1629 ruled invalid.
1663
 
2nd Esopus WAR
During the beginning of the 2nd War the
Dutch
considered serious losses mainly because the
Esopus
had set up a devious diversion (news about a total wipe out of 'Nieuw Dorp' came too late). Later that year the Dutch killed chief Papequanaehen whilst engaging attacks on Esopus villages.
1660
 
 
1st Esopus WAR ended
1659
 
 1st Esopus WAR
Most probably this 1st War was initiated because of a misunderstanding. The
Dutch
had to buy time with scorched earth tactics until reinforcements came to repulse the
Esopus
.
1656
 
 
1st Mission in Apalachee lands
San Luis de Talimali ....

*** more later ***
1656
 
 
Erie People defeated
After 2 years of resistence by the
Erie People
it was the
Iroquois
Confederacy who extended their lands again.
Part of the Beaver Wars.
1655
 
Peach Tree WAR
A
Susquehannock
attack on
Dutch
settlements.
*** more later ***
1655
 
New Sweden dissolved
The
Dutchman
Peter Stuyvesant recaptured Fort Casimir and ended
New Sweden
permanently.
1654
 
Fort Casimir captured
The
Dutch
Fort Casimir was captured by
New Sweden
. They renamed it Fort Trinity.
1654
 
Erie People attacked
And again the
Iroquois
kept on warring. The Confederacy attacked the
Erie People
(aka Eriehronon).
Part of the Beaver Wars.
1651
 
Fort Casimir at 'de Zuyd'
Fort Casimir was built south of the
Swedish
Fort Christina to consolidate
Dutch
presence on the shores of the Deleware River ('de Zuydrivier' in old Dutch).
1650
 
Chonnonton defeated
The
Iroquois
Confederacy kept on expanding their territory and defeated the
Chonnonton
(aka Attawandaron or Neutral People), who were already weakened by European diseases (measles and smallpox) .
Part of the Beaver Wars.
1649
 
 
Huron defeated
The
Iroquois
ferociously defeated the
Huron
. Those villagers who survived were captured to be adopted into the Confederacy. As a consequence the
French
lost their main fur supplier.
Part of the Beaver Wars.
1648
 
Iroquois attacked Huron
Many
Huron
villages were attacked by
Iroquois
warriors armed with guns (possesed through trade with Dutch colonists).
Part of the Beaver Wars.
1646
 
Fort Henry built
Fort Henry
was built at the shores of the Appomattox river in Virginia near nowadays Petersburg.
1646
 
 
3rd Anglo-Powhatan WAR ends
The
Powhatan
Confederacy disintegrated after Opechancanough's death, though hostilities by the
English
continued for a while.
1645
 
 
Kieft's WAR ends
Harasment had become enormous and very frequent;
Lenape
and many allies were fully compromised to revenge the massacres.
In 1645 a truce was agreed upon, though
'Nieuw Nederland'
had completely lost its confidence in the area along 'de Noortrivier'.
1644
 
3rd Anglo-Powhatan WAR
After a period of peace the
Powhatan
Chief Opechancanough again started to attack
English
settlements.
1644
 
Pound Ridge Massacre
A grievous nighttime attack was launched by
Dutch
and
English
colonials lead by Captain John Underhill on a Wappinger village east of the 'Noortrivier' (one of the more dominant members of the
Lenape).
1643
 
Kieft's WAR
After Kieft's wrongfull massacres
Dutch
settlers were repeatedly harassed by
Lenape
warriors. Soon other neighbouring tribes joined them in their just actions.
1643
 
Slaughter of the innocents
The killings of
Lenape
men, women and children at Pavonia and Corlears Hook are recorded as 'the slaughter of the innocents'. Both massacres, initiated by the
Dutch
Governer Willem Kieft, took place despite a negative consent of the Council of Twelve Men.
1642
 
Montreal founded
The
Frenchman
Paul de Chomedey de Maisonneuve founded Ville-Marie; a settlement near 'Mont Royale' which was soon called Montreal as well.
1640
  enslavement in Virginia
John Punch (a 12-generation grandfather of Barack Obama) has the unfortunate stigma of being considered by historians as the first official slave in Virginia.
1638
 
Fort Christina built
By order of the
Dutchman
Samuel Blommaert the
Flamish
Peter Minuit (former Governer of New Amsterdam) was appointed to lead a Swedish expedition to the new World.
In a way the birth of
New Sweden
despite the
Dutch
claim of the area surrounding the 'Zuyd rivier'.
1638
 
Wenro ferociously defeated
The
Wenro
people were attacked by the
Iroquois;
survivors assimilated with the
Seneca
(the most western member of the Iroquois) or fled North-Westwards beyond the Niagara Falls.
Part of the Beaver Wars.
1638
 
 
Pequot WAR ends
The
Pequot
chief Sassacus sought refuge amongst the
Mohawk
, though was instead murdered (head and hands brought to the
English
). The
Pequot
spirit was broken.
1637
 
Fairfield Swamp Fight
Trying to flee westwards the remaining
Pequot
warriors, including chief Sassacus, got surrounded by
English,
Narragansett
and
Mohegan
warriors. After 2 days of battle he and a small number of
Pequots
somehow managed to flee.
1637
 
Mystic Massacre
The fortified
Pequot
village next to the Mystic River was set ablaze by the
English
. Those who tried to flee were shot.
1636
 
Rhode Island founded
Rhode Island founded by the
Englishman
R. Williams.
1636
 
Pequot WAR
Unclear killings were the cause of war between
Pequots
and
English
colonists. The colonists got support from
Narragansett
and
Mohegan
warriors.
1635
 
Connecticut Colony founded
A colony in Connecticut was founded by the
Englishman
John Winthrop Junior.
1634
 
Maryland was being colonized
Settlers to Maryland; initiated by the
Englishman
Cecil Calvert
1634
 
Trois-Rivières permanently settled
This spot was chosen for a settlement because of its position at the 'crossroads of rivers'.
French
fur traders came from all directions to sell their goods, which were to be shipped via Quebec to the European Continent.
1632
 
 
2nd Anglo-Powhatan WAR ends
Although peace was already declared in 1628 it became official in 1632.
1630
 
Puritans founded Massachusetts
Puritans, led by the
Englishman
John Winthrop, founded Massachusetts.
1629
 
New Hampshire founded
John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges divided
English
claims along the Piscataqua river. Mason called his area New Hampshire.
1628
 
 
Mohican defeated
Mohican
defeated by
Mohawks
(member of the
Iroquois
Confederacy).
The first major conflict of the Beaver Wars.
1627
 
Fort Nassau at 'de Zuyd'
The
Dutch
had built Fort Nassau next to the Deleware River ('de Zuydrivier' in old Dutch)
1627
 
'Compagnie des Cent-Associés'
Cardinal Richelieu initiated a 'Compagnie des Cent-Associés'; which was in a way the birth of
New France
. He did so to expand the
French
colonization in the New World and to have fur trade done on a more organized level in the area around Quebec.
1625
 
Mohican attacked
Mohican
attacked by
Mohawks
(member of the
Iroquois
Confederacy) because of fur trade competition. Therefor this event is seen as the beginning of the Beaver Wars.
1624
 
Fort Orange at 'de Noort-rivier'
The
Dutch
colonists had built a replacement for Fort Nassau at the Hudson River near nowadays Albany.
1622
 
2nd Anglo-Powhatan WAR
The second Anglo-Powhatan War started with the Indian Massacre of 1622.
1622
 
Indian Massacre of 1622
Powhatan
warriors and allies entered
English
settlements pretending to be salesmen of goods and food. After a while they launched a ferocious surprise attack with a devastating ending.
1620
 
Plymouth founded
The Mayflower Voyage brought the 1st Pilgrims to the New World; they,
Dutch
and
English
citizens, had to take landfall before reaching their planned destination because they were seriously running down on supplies. Despite skepticism an
English
settlement was founded; they called it Plymouth.
1616
 
Region named New England
Wereas John Smith was one of the first leaders in Jamestown (Virginia) he was never to come back there again. Though, during his 1616-voyage he explored the coastline of nowadays Massachusettes, New Hampshire & Maine; he named this more northern region
New England
.
1614
 
Fort Nassau at 'de Noort'
A fortified
Dutch
trading post, called Fort Nassau, was built at the Hudson River ('de Noortrivier' in old Dutch) on Westerlo Island.
1614
 
 
1st Anglo-Powhatan WAR ends
After the raid of Matchcot (the new
Powhatan capital) peace was sealed by the marriage of the chiefs daughter Pocahontas to the
English
colonist John Rolfe.
1613
 
Region named 'Nieuw Nederland'
Adrian Block founded the first settlement and claimed a large area as
'Nieuw Nederland'
.
1613
 
 
Two Row Wampum Treaty
The
Dutch
initiated trade with the
Iroquois
Confederacy. A Two Row Wampum Treaty was recorded: furs <=> mainly weapons.
The Iroquois (aka Haudenosaunee or Five Nations) was from east to west comprised of:
Mohawk,
Oneida,
Onondaga,
Cayuga &
Seneca
.
1610
 
Hudson Bay shores explored
The
English
explored Hudson Bay shores under supervision of Henry Hudson. This strategically most interesting fur trading spot was considered seriously only more than half a century later.
1609
 
1st Anglo-Powhatan WAR
The
Englishman
George Percy brutally attacked the
Powhatan
capital Paspahegh by order of De La Warr; the 1st Anglo-Powhatan war was a fact.
1609
 
Hudson River shores explored
Under supervision of the
English
man Henry Hudson the
Dutch
sailed North on the 'Noortrivier' (nowadays called the Hudson River).
1608
 
French founded Quebec
Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec. It was the first successful permanent settlement for
France
in the New World.
1607
 
English established Jamestown
The first permanent
English
settlement in the New World: Jamestown in nowadays Virginia. Unfortunately they had built it on a swamp, trying to avoid unfriendly interactions with native people. Still though, despite health problems and an unbalanced relation with the
Powhatan
people, Jamestown was going to be rather successful; mainly because of tobacco trade.
Column  1
   Eastern   N.Am.;   South & Central
States (some partly) claimed by
New France
before 1763:

Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Missouri & Iowa.

Florida was claimed by
New Spain
.
Column  2
   Eastern   N.Am.;   Great Lakes & North
All these nowadays states were (some partly) claimed by
New France
before 1763 except the Hudson Bay shore's, which the
English
called Rupert's land.

USA-states: Minnesota, Wisconsin & Michigan.
Canadian-states: Newfoundland and Labrador, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba & Nunavut.
Column  3
   First 13 colonies; the Northern 7
The British Colonies east of the Proclamation-line:
  • Parts of: Pennsylvania and New York
  • New Jersey
  • Connecticut
  • Rhode Island
  • Massachusetts
  • New Hampshire (+ Maine & Vermont)
  • Column  4
       First 13 colonies; the Southern 6
    The British Colonies east of the Proclamation-line:
  • part of Georgia
  • part of South Carolina
  • part of North Carolina
  • part of Virginia
  • Maryland
  • Delaware
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