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1794
 
 
George Vancouver's expedition ended
Captain George Vancouver sailed back to
England
in 1794 bringing the message that matters about claimed lands in the territory had to be solved in Europe. During his North-west-coast-expedition he had a conversation at Nootka Island about the issue with a
Spanish
Governer.
1792
 
George Vancouver's expedition
Before reaching the American continent
Captain
George Vancouver stayed in Hawai for the winter. Soon after, he continued his expedition and dropped anchor near present-day Seattle, proceded to name Puget Sound, Mount Rainier, Vashon Island and Restoration Point.
1782
 
El Presidio Real de Santa Barbara
On an exceptionally beautiful spot the
Spanish
founded 'El Presidio Real de Santa Barbara' to keep clear a large area from hostilities.
1779
 
Cuerno Verde defeated
Spain
defeated the
Comanches;
Chief Tavibo Naritgant (aka Cuerno Verde) was killed in battle.
1776
 
The Battle of Nassau
Esek Hopkins was commissioned with the task to take hold of stored English military supplies on New Providence [the Bahamas]. And indeed, the Raid on Nassau was won by forerunners, and moreover, the first version, of the
US
Marine Corps and the
US
Navy.
1776
 
Domínguez–Escalante expedition
The main purpose of the
Domínguez–
Escalante expedition was to find a route to the Alta California settlements. From Santa Fé northwards they followed the Dolores River (between the Mesa Verde and San Juan Mountains). In northern Colorado they kept westwards and arrived at the Fork Canyon with a breathtaking view over Lake Utah. The expedition turned south through Utah and afterwards back to Santa Fé. Although they never reached California there still was success; they brought home some precious ore.
1776
 
Presedio de San Francisco
To secure the San Francisco Bay the
Spaniard
Juan Bautista de Anza II founded this Presidio on a strategic location. Nowadays a spot with a spectacular view on the Golden Gate Bridge.
1776
 
Colonization of Monterey
Juan Bautista de Anza II (aka Junior) was again sent to Alta California. This time to colonize the area and thereby securing it for
New Spain.
Another important issue was to find a suitable spot for a harbor.
1775
 
Presidio San Agustín del Tucsón
The
Spanish,
led by Hugh O'Conor (an
Irish
mercenary), found a suitable place east of the St. Cruz River to build a fort; the Presidio San Agustin del Tucson was founded.
1774
 
Exploration of Alta California
The
expedition
departed from the Tubac Presidio and headed north along the Santa Cruz River, west following the Gila River to its confluence with the Colorado River and afterwards northwest to the 'Misión San Gabriel'.
1772
 
Hearne's expedition ended
Despite the dreadful massacre the
English
expedition was successful. Not only on account of its main purpose (finding copper) but also on another major issue; a plausible northern sea route from the Atlantic to the Pacific (the NorthWesternPassage).
1771
 
'Misión San Gabriel Arcángel'
At the Rio Hondo a fourth
Spanish
Mission in California was established: "The Godmother of the Pueblo of Los Angeles".
1771
 
Bloody Falls Massacre
Inuit men and women the party encountered at the Coppermine River were attacked by Samuel Hearne's Chipewyan guides, even after
Hearne
tried to convince the leader, Matonabbee, not to.
1770
 
'Misión San Carlos Borromeo de Carmelo'
Gaspar de Portolá's 2nd expedition went from San Diego to the California Bay. The lands were claimed for
New Spain
as Alta California and Mission San Carmel was founded in nowadays Monterey Peninsula.
1770
 
Hearne's 3rd Expedition
After 2 earlier unsuccesful journeys in search for copper Samuel Hearne organized and prepared for a 3rd expedition. With Chipewyan guides (belonging to the
Dene
People) they departed from
Fort
Prince of Wales on the western shore of the Hudson Bay in the north-western direction.
1769
 
Presidio & Mission San Diego
Gaspar de
Portolá's
1st expedition took from Baja California to San Diego; Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded as well as a Presidio.
1762
 
 
France concede lands to Spain
At the time when
France
realised that the French and Indian War in Eastern North-America against the
English
was lost, they secretly gave away all territories west of the Appalachian Mountains to
Spain.
1759
 
Battle of the twin villages
Because of the Raid on Santa Cruz de San Saba a punitive expedition was sent out to attack Wichita, Comanche and Tonkawa villages. Under the command of Diego Ortiz Parrilla they went northwards. At the Red River they encountered a fortified Wichita settlement and besieged it. However, the inhabitants were accompanied by even more
Comanches
who fired back at the attackers with muskets. The
Spanish
tried to breach the walls with the use of canons. Unsuccessfully though, and after having lost many a man they resigned trying.
1758
 
Raid on Santa Cruz de San Saba
Lipan
Apaches
had made peace with the
Spanish
and had asked for a 'Mísion'. With hesitation it was done so; the Mission Santa Cruz de San Saba was built in 1757. Though, it was destroyed a year later by Wichita and
Comanches
who were unhappy with the course of events.
1754
 
Henday's Expedition
Anthony
Henday's party, commissioned by the HBC, went from the Hudson Bay to the Rocky Mountains; through Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Presumably they peacefully met Archithinues (aka the Blackfoot).
1747
 
Raid on Abiquiu
Abiquiu was established as a
New Mexico
frontier outpost for surveillance expeditions. And indeed, the area was still frequently attacked by
Utes,
Navajos,
Apaches
and
Comanches.
After the raid of 1747 by Comanches Abiquiu was abandoned, though recaptured and reoccupied by the
Spanish
a year later.
1742
 
Northern Great Plains Expedition
Two sons of Pierre Gaultier de Varennes et de La Vérendrye (Louis-Joseph and Francois) explored the northern Great Plains; from North Dakota probably to the Dakota Black Hills and back via South Dakota; documentation about their expedition is unfortunately not at hand. On the other hand though, a claim for
France
was found in Pierre (South Dakota).
1740
 
J.B. de Anza Senior killed
The
Spaniard
Juan Bautista de Anza Senior ascended rapidly through the militia hierarchy from 1726 onwards. During this period the New Spain citizens in Sonora (nowadays a
Mexican
Province) and Arizona (nowadays a
USA
State) frequently had to cope with hostile White Mountain
Apaches.
Preceding his plan to establish a (trade)route to Alta California, he was killed whilst undertaking a preparational trip.
1720
 
Pawnee attacked the Spanish
The
Spanish
Villasur expedition, accompanied by
Puebloan
warriors and
Apache
guides, was sent to the Great Plains to annihilate
French
influence. The expedition went north-east through Colorado, Kansas and Nebraska. The party met and unsuccesfully negotiated with the
Pawnee
, who at dawnbreak attacked the camped expedition. After a short and fierce fight they were victorious; this event ends
Spanish
influence in the Central Great Plains.
1718
 
Misión San Antonio de Valero
In the course of opposing
French
claims in the Texas area
Spanish
New Mexico founded Misión San Antonio de Valero (nowadays known as The Alamo).
1718
 
'Kings Pardon' offered
England
commissioned Woodes Rogers with the task to offer a 'Kings Pardon' to British pirates. Where some (f.e. Benjamin Hornigold) hesitatingly accepted the offer, other pirates like Charles Vane and Edward Teach (better known as Blackbeard) did not.
1706
 
 
 
Juan De Ulibarrí expedition
The
Spanish
, accompanied by
Puebloan
warriors, got going from Santa Fé, crossed the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, passed the Mesa de Maya, entered the Great Plains, reached the settlement of El Quartelejo and claimed it for Spain. During the trip De Ulibarrí improved relations with the Jicarilla (an
Apache
tribe).
1695
 
Charlestown rebuilt & renamed
Charlestown rebuilt and renamed in Nassau [Bahamas].

*** more later ***
1692
 
 
 
 
 
Huge Alliance
Not all
Puebloans
wanted to submit easily. By means of small raids and minor incidents some still opposed the
Spanish.
Others moved to join the 'Huge Alliance'; an alliance comprised of Hopis (a
Pueblo
tribe),
Apaches,
Navajos,
Comanches,
Utes
and Pah-utes (like the Utes a
Shoshone
tribe). As a consequence the frequency of raids on
Spanish
and allied
Pueblo
villages increased. The alliance lasted for many years. However, its form of existence changed over time.
1692
 
Pueblo tribes subdued again
Spain
knew that
France
was enlarging its lands along the Mississippi river. To oppose further French expansion they wanted New Mexico back; Diego De Vargas was commissioned to take up the task. Coincidently, timing was on his side. Many
Pueblo
tribes accepted Spanish rule again. Moreover, they sided without bloodshed because they needed protection against enduring raids from
Navajos
and
Apaches.
1692
 
Earthquake demolished Port Royal
The economically thriving city of Port Royal in Jamaica met with a disaster; an earthquake demolished it completely. Later, those who fled in time founded a new city on the north side of the bay; Kingston was born.
1687
 
La Salle's Expedition ended
La Salle still wanted to find the Mississippi river, though was killed by mutineers near Navasota. Then again, the mutineers turned to each other. Only two survived, did actually find the Mississippi river and reached
French
lands in the Great Lakes Area.
1685
 
La Salle's expedition
Cavelier De La Salle was determined to achieve his major goal; he had to find the Mississippi river from the West initiating expeditions to the East of Saint Louis [Texas].
1684
 
Saint Louis founded
Although not on the planned spot, La Salle founded Saint Louis (near Matagorda Bay [Texas]) and as a result expanding
New
France. However, it would not stand the test of time; it was destroyed in 1688.
1684
 
Spanish destroyed Charlestown
1680
 
Pueblo Revolt
Popé's Revolt was very well prepared; in all
Pueblo
villages actions were to start on the same day. By following this strategy they secured the surrounding villages of
Santa Fé
before they besieged it. Still though governor Antonio de Otermín managed to flee and retreated southwards. The Puebloans were victorious; all Christian tokens were to be destroyed making space for the old way of life. However, not all Pueblo tribes found the revolt a succes; unity amongst them would diminish even more.
1670
 
Charles Town founded
1660
 
 
Anglo-Spanish War ended
1654
 
Anglo-Spanish War
1654
 
Portuguese ended Dutch Brazil
1641
 
Luis De Rosas vs. Franciscans
A
Spanish
revolt was already going on for some years in Santa Fé: the governer Luis De Rosas versus the Franciscans. After his term De Rosas was taken prisoner, excommunicated and a few months later stabbed to death. The friction between church and government gave
Puebloans,
Navajos
and
Apaches
confidence in their attitude against the Spanish.
1637
 
Utes versus Spanish
A Spanish expedition led by Luis de Rosas encountered and fought with
Ute
warriors (a major and influential
Shoshone
related tribe). Although lots of horses were brought back to the Utes canyon homelands, they lost quite some men who had to work in slavery in
New Mexico.
Skirmishes and raids continued until a Peace treaty in 1670.
1630
 
Dutch conquered Northern Brazil
1616
 
Fort 'kijk-over-al' built
The
Dutch
built Fort 'kaik-over-all' (Joost v/d Hooge).

*** more later ***
1612
 
Saint-Louis founded
French founded Saint-Louis in nowadays Maranhão (De la Ravardière); the start of France equinoxial

*** more later ***
1610
 
 
 
 
Santa Fé
When Don Pedro de Peralta replaced Juan De Oñate he renamed the Tewa
Pueblo
village Oghá P'o'oge in Santa Fé. Soon a Palace of Governors was built and therefore it became the official capital of
New Mexico.
From this base the Spanish wanted to evangelize
Puebloans,
Navajos
and
Apaches
; they prohibited local beliefs. However, Pueblo ceremonies (e.g. Kachina Dances) were occasionaly ignored.
1599
 
The Acoma Escalation
When Juan De Oñate's nephew ruthlessly harrased Acoma
Pueblo
women, the tribe retributed by killing the Spanish party. Events escalated and De Oñate mercilessly reciprocated by initiating a massacre. The few who survived were heartlessly misshaped by having them amputated a foot. Later, the
Spanish
government judged him for his atrocious behaviour.
1598
 
 
 
 
'Nuevo Mejico' Province
'San Juan de los Caballeros' founded by Juan de Oñate as a settlement to host the administration for
New Mexico.
He pronounced himself governor of all the lands in which the
Puebloans,
Navajo
and
Apaches
lived.
1595
 
Looking for El Dorado
Leading a flottila of four ships Walter Raleigh first of all sailed to Trinidad, overtook a
Spanish
Harbour and went on to capture San José de Oruna (and its governor Berrio). Later, the
English
party explored the Orinoco river, went further in land and found breathtaking landscapes. However no sight of an El Dorado.
1590
 
 
Chichimeca War ended
After having tried to secure trade routes with (more) presidio's, the
Spanish
turned to another strategy: the Purchase for Peace. In a way admitting their defeat they gave
Chichimecas
quantities of goods, started settlements of already assimilated Tlaxcalans amongst them and gradually converted them to Catholicism. Though, most importantly the Spanish deprecated the use of abuse, mistreatment and enslavement; a policy change which would be used more often.
1589
 
Roanoke; the lost Colony
When John White arrived at the colony in 1590, it was much earlier (probably in 1589) abandoned and completely disrupted; the only token was a word written on the pallisade: Croatan. However, did they attack the settlement or did the
English
migrate with them peacefully? The relation could have improved over time?!
1587
 
Roanoke Colony; 2nd attempt
This time the main purpose was to establish a permanent settlement. The
English
brought amongst lots of extra men entire families. Unfortunately, soon life turned out to be rather difficult out there. Colonists wanted help from England and, reluctantly however, John White sailed back.
1585
 
Roanoke Colony; 1st attempt
After having arrived at the planned destination, the party rather soon lost one of their largest ships because it was damaged in a storm when anchored offshore; food supplies and tools on board got lost. However, a fortification was built, though was abandoned in 1586.
1584
 
Raleigh's reconnaissance expedition
Two ships were sent to the New World to find good spots for future colonies. Pleased with finding a small island with natural resources, they sailed back to
England
taking along two natives: Manteo (Croatoan) and Wanchese (Roanoacs).
1579
 
Nova Albion claimed
After having captured the
Spanish
Treasureship 'Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion' on the western coastline near nowadays Equador, Francis Drake sailed northwards and went ashore to take care of some repairs. While there he claimed the lands and named it 'Nova Albion'. Later, he continued his voyage westwards and in 1580 he reached
England;
Drake was the 2nd to circumnavigate the world.
1572
 
 
Inca Empire defeated
Although Pizarro was killed in 1541 by followers of his contester Diego de Almagro, the
Spanish
continued to colonize South-American territories. Conflicts between
Incas
and their foreign occupiers carried on for another three decades.
1568
 
Battle of San Juan de Ulúa
Because of being short on supplies and having to cope with compulsary repairs an English privateering flotilla led by Hawkins, Hampton and Drake sailed to the Spanish S.J. de Ulúa. After an arduous negotiation, parties agreed a truce; the
English
were allowed on the small island. Later, a Spanish escort fleet arrived with on board the new governor. So, despite the agreement the
Spanish
changed their point of view, prepared secretly for an attack and shortly after carried out their new plans.
1565
 
Massacre at Matanzas
Later, almost all shipwrecked
Frenchmen
were cruelly stabbed to death by the ten despite the fact that they had surrendered. History connotates the spot on the beach where these inhuman and barberic
Spanish
executions took place; it is called Matanzas (which means slaughters).
1565
 
Fort Carolina destroyed
The
French
met with a disaster; Ribault's ships where wrecked by a storm trying to reach St. Augustine. The
Spanish
took advantage, marched to Fort Caroline and completely destroyed it. Ruthlessly and heartlessly they even killed women and children at first, though by order of Menéndez this was stopped.
1565
 
St. Augustine founded; Florida reclaimed
At first Pedro Menéndez de Avilés planned to immediately attack Fort Carolina and reject the
French
claim of Florida. Because of a French blockade in the mouth of the river they sailed south and founded St. Augustine. Later, this settlement proved to be the first permanent
Spanish
settlement in Florida.
1562
 
Fort 'La Caroline' founded
Jean Ribault founded Fort Caroline and claimed Florida for
France.
The
Spanish
defined this as a bold and unjust action because La Florida was already claimed in 1513.
1550
 
Chichimeca War
Displeased with the Spanish, Zacateco warriors (a member of the
Chichimeca
Confederacy) raided silver carrying caravans from Purépecha to Mexico-city. The frequency of these raids grew rapidly especially since Guachichile and Guamares joined them in their cause. Because of the attack-and-run way of warfare many
Spanish
tradesmen and soldiers were killed. The Carrot and Stick answer by the Spanish only escalated the situation.
1542
 
Cabrillo's West Coast Expedition
The De Ulloa expedition was not succesfull. So, the
Spanish
governor, Antonio de Mendoza, commissioned the
Portuguese
Juan Rodrigez Cabrillo to explore the western coastline further North. Still hoping to find a connection with either the Hudson Bay or St. Lawrence Bay.
1542
 
Cartier's 3rd Voyage ended
Soon after Cartier's return in Charlesbourg-Royal it was attacked; several quick and short assaults by
St.Lawrence Iroquoians.
Furthermore, during the winter the situation turned into a devastating status. The settlement was not going to stand the test of time; Cartier had no choice but to sail back to
France.
1542
 
 
 
Western Expedition ended
Francisco De Coronado hung on to a last chance of finding riches; he was told of a wealthy settlement called Quivira. The party continued east and stayed in Cicuyé (Pecos
Pueblo
); a fortified trading centre. They encountered Querecho
Apaches
on the Llano Estacado before descending to the Caprock Canyons meeting with the Teya
Apaches
. Continuing north-eastwards through Oklahoma into Kansas and after arriving in the supposed Quivira the
Coronado
Expedition ended.
1542
 
Southern Expedition ended
After the victory at Mavilla the battered
De Soto
expedition travelled west through nowadays Mississippi and Arkansas all the way to Caddo Gap.
1542
 
 
Mixtón War ended
De Alvarado overestimated his force and attacked the
Chichimeca
despite the fact that reinforcements were sent. Francisco Tenamaztle and Don Diego repulsed all consecutive attacks; De Alvarado died. The
Spanish
Viceroy Mendoza went to the territory with an enormous army and after capturing all cities he finished the revolt by taking the last one. And even after the fall of Mixton the wrath of the Spanish was heartless and atrocious; they enslaved, tortured, executed...
1541
 
 
Cartier's 3rd Voyage
Jean-Francois Roberval was ordered by the
French
King Francis I to found a settlement, to proselytize the
St.Lawrence Iroquoians
and to bring back all the wealth of the "Kingdom of Saguenay". He sent Cartier ahead who founded Charlesbourg-Royal close to
Stadacona
(nowadays Quebec). When all seemed well, though doomy, Cartier started to explore the area of the Ottawa River.
1540
 
Mixtón War
With many soldiers gone (as part of the Coronado Expedition) people of the
Chichimeca
tribes took their chance to rebel against the ruthless
Spanish
power ("unprovoked killings, torture and enslavement"). After their first actions they took refuge in Mixton from where they repelled a Spanish attack ordered by Cristobal de Oñate; the Mixton War was a fact. Antonio de Mendoza, the
New Spain
governor, commissioned Pedro de Alvarado to decisively end the rebellion.
1540
 
 
 
  Western Expedition
A large
Spanish
party (F.V. de Coronado) accompanied by assimilated
Aztecs
departed to find the 7 cities of Cibola. They headed northwards into the White Mountain Western
Apache
area of Arizona. Later, in Hawikuh (named Granada; a Cibola city?!) they put up a presidio from which they sent out smaller parties to explore
Pueblo
(Zuni and Hopi) and
Navajo
lands. Though, before winter was coming they headed east, reached the Rio Grande and met more
Puebloans
(Sandia, Taos and Picurís); this encounter soon escalated into the Tiguex War.
1540
 
Battle of Mavilla
Succeeding the winter the
Spanish
De Soto Expedition went North and after reaching nowadays Tennessee southwards again following the Natchez Trail. Relations with the
Tuscaloosa
had grown all negative which resulted in the very bloody Battle of Mavila. Although de Soto was victorious the Expedition lost quite some men and resources.
1539
 
 
Southern Expedition
In the beginning Hernando de Soto tried to go the same route as the Narvaez Expedition. Because of this they encountered Juan Ortiz a
Spaniard
who had lived with the
Timucua
for more than a decade; he proved to be very important for the ongoing De Soto Expedition. Though, before continuing they camped in Apalachee (a
Muscogean
tribe) lands for the winter.
1539
 
Ulloa's West Coast Expedition
With the intention to find a connection with the Gulf of St.Lawrence Francisco de Ulloa explored the western coast. The party of 3 vessels sailed from Acapulco northwards to the mouth of the nowadays called Colorado River and then all around the peninsula untill they had to go back because of the continuous harsh conditions. He never arrived in
New Spain
and his death is accompanied with unclear circumstances.
1536
 
East to West Expedition ended
Panfilo de Narvaez died in a storm trying to go back to Cuba. His command was taken over by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and the party tried to continue westwards. Many died of illness or got killed whilst skirmishing with indigenous people. Though, de Vaca and only three others survived; they were taken captive and had to work as slaves for several years somewhere in nowadays southern Texas. They managed to escape and encountered
Spaniards
in Sinaloa who guided them to Mexico-city.
1536
 
 
French 2nd Voyage ended
Just before the weather turned cold they sailed back to Stadacona where they reluctantly had to stay for the winter. Before sailing back home in May Cartier kidnapped Sachem Donnacona to be brought to
France;
thoughtlessly jeopardizing their so dearly built up relation with the
St.Lawrence Iroquoians.
1535
 
 
French explored a northern river
On Cartier's 2nd voyage he brought Donnacona's two son's back to the discovered lands. Sailing up the nowadays St.Lawrence river they reached Stadacona; a major village of the
St.Lawrence Iroquoians.
Later, a smaller
French
party went on to explore the river more southwest. Because of the many rapids ahead they had to turn at another
St.Lawrence Iroquoians
village; the impressive Hochelaga.
1534
 
 
Northern sea shores explored
Cartier strongly believed he had soon achieved his main goal by sailing west on his 1st voyage: no doubt, he had reached Asian lands!? Most probably at Gaspé the party took two son's of Donnacona, a sachem of the
St.Lawrence Iroquoians
they had met, to bring to
France
as evidence for all the tales they wanted to tell.
1532
 
Conquest of the Incas
A rather small party of
Spanish
conquistadores under Francisco Pizarro headed south. At Cajamarca a meeting with Atahualpa was set up though it would not yet come to pass; the
Incas
were ambushed and Atahualpa taken captive.
1532 ;  13th  Sapa Inca  Atahualpa
At the end of the
Inca
Civil War, initiated by Huáscar, Atahualpa was victorious and became ruler of the whole realm. Though, he was going to be 'the last
Sapa Inca
'; the
Spanish
invasion had already started in the North.
1532
 
Atahualpa
At the end of the
Inca
Civil War, initiated by Huáscar, Atahualpa was victorious and became ruler of the whole realm. Though, he was going to be 'the last
Sapa Inca
'; the
Spanish
invasion had already started in the North.
1532
 
Huáscar defeated
The
Inca
Dynastic War, aka the
Inca
Civil War, lasted for three years. Atahualpa was Victor.
1529
 
Inca Civil War
After living in peace as two
Sapa Inca
Rulers for five years, Huáscar attacked the northern region. He imprisoned his brother, though Atahualpa broke out and assembled his armies.
1527
 
East to West Expedition
Panfilo de Narvaez left
Spain
with about 600 men and after a few stops in the Carribean he went ashore in Florida. They soon lost quite some men (e.g. desertion) and a few ships because of a hurricane. After a joyfull meeting with the
Timucua
their relation changed overtime. Before it turned really bad, the Expedition reached Apalachee lands. At first the
Spaniards
overrun them, though the Apalachee (a
Muscogean
tribe) continuously fought back and therefore Narvaez decided to break off the expedition.
1524 ;  12th  Sapa Inca  Huáscar
The legitimate heir Huáscar was to be
Sapa Inca
in the southern region with Cuzco as its capital.
1524 ;  12th  Sapa Inca  Atahualpa
Atahualpa was to be
Sapa Inca
of the northern region with Quito as its capital.
1524
 
Inca Empire divided
Huayna Capac and his oldest son Ninan Coyuchi died of smallpox. The realm was divided:

Huáscar  the South (Cuzco)
Atahualpa  the North (Quito)
1524
 
Conquest of Maya Kingdoms
The
Maya
Kingdom of Kaqchikel had surrendered without bloodshed. Gifts were offered to the
Spanish
conquistador Pedro de Alvarado in order to prevent War. Moreover, the Lords of Iximche, capital of the Kaqchikel, offered
Maya
Warriors to fight the other major
Maya
Highland Kingdom of K'iche (capital: Q'umarkaj). The latter did not surrender in advance, though was slaughtered in the Quetzaltenango valley.
1524
 
French New Angoulême
The
Italian
explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sailed for
France
along the eastern coast northwards from Cape Fear to Narragansett Bay; he named it New Angoulême. The claim though was not backed up with militaristic forts, a trade centre or civil settlements.
1521
 
 
Aztecs defeated
Naturally the
Aztecs
were with many more, though, despite this, the War was swift. The technological advancement in weaponry of the
Spanish
was the main reason that the
Aztec Empire
was swept away within two years.
1520
 
Navigational passage found
Navigational passage found by the
Portuguese
Explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailing for
Spain
. Magellan became the first to circumnavigate the entire world. A huge achievement thenadays, however, still though he was not well received because his reputation soon got disgraced by his crew.
1519
 
Conquest of the Aztecs
At first the
Spanish
conquistador Hernán Cortés was welcomed by
Moctezuma II
with gifts. Moreover, he was even invited to stay as a visitor in his palace. Tensions increased between the parties overtime, which resulted in war.
1519
 
Panama City founded
'Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de Panamá' founded by Pedro Arias Dávila as the first
Spanish
settlement on the Pacific side of the Americas. This junction would become a major hub; not only because of Militaristic Conquests (e.g. the Inca Empire) but as a node in future trade routes.
1519
 
Pineda Expedition
The
Spaniard
Alonso Álvarez de Pineda explored the whole coastline of the nowadays Gulf of Mexico. Although he was killed in battle towards the end of his expedition, his map had quite some importance. He had proved that Florida was not an island and, moreover at the time, that these waters were not connected with Asia; it was a very large bay.
1518
 
 
Port Royal founded
Although the northern coast of Jamaica was already permanently colonized by the
Spanish
in 1509, it was Port Royal which became an important trading centre and well-known (wild and interesting) place in the West-Indies.
Tainos
were already subdued at the time.
1518
 
S.J. de Ulúa founded
Juan de Grijalva founded San Juan de Ulúa on an island very close to the nowadays
Mexican
coast on which a year later Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz was founded. quite some future expeditions started from this base; e.g. the
Spanish
expedition which was going to conquer the
Aztec Empire
.
1515
 
Havana founded
From the first encounters in 1496 onwards the
Tainos
were suppressed by the
Spanish.
Though moreover, in 1510 Diego Velazquez de Cuellar, and his deputy Panfilo De Narvaez, started the conquest of Cuba subduing all inhabitants. At the end De Cuéllar founded 'Habana' close to Playa Mayabeque.
1513
 
Spanish reached the Pacific
From far on a high mountain to the north-east of La Palma [Panama] the
Spaniard
Vasco Nunez de Balboa saw undiscovered waters; the Pacific Ocean was reached.
1513
 
Florida claimed
Juan Ponce de Leon sailed from Puerto Rico to the north-west. Was he looking for the 'Fountain of Youth'? Anyway, he made landfall and explored the eastern coastline southwards (to Florida Keys). On the western side of the peninsula they encountered hostile natives (the Calusa) and abandoned the lands they were exploring.
1511
 
Shipwrecked Spaniards ritually sacrificed
Yucatan
Maya
s captured shipwrecked
Spanish
sailormen and soldiers. Shortly after, they were ritually sacrificed. Only two somehow managed to escape in time.
1510
 
Nombre de Dios founded
'The Name Of God' was founded by Diego de Nicuesa. During half a century Nombre de Dios was the major harbor in the transport route of silver; from the Potosi in Bolivia to
Spain
.
1510
 
St. Maria la Antigua del Darién founded
The first (temporarily though) succesfull
Spanish
settlement on the New Continent. It was founded by Vasco Nunez de Balboa.
1508
 
 
San Juan;   the rich port
Two years earlier Juan Ponce de León had already made landfall (and had found lots and lots of gold) on this island; it was called Borinquen by its inhabitants (the
Tainos).
He initially founded Caparra for
Spain.
Some 18 years later the slightly replaced settlement was renamed into Puerto Rico.
1507
 
New World named America
Mapmaker Martin Waldseemuller initially assumed that Amerigo Vespucci was the first to discover a New World and by honoring him he named it so. After realizing his mistake he rewrote his maps, though it was too late; the name America was already widespread in use.
1502
 
Nueva Cadiz founded
Nueva Cadiz was built as a
Spanish
Base on an island (nowadays Cubagua); an outpost on one hand for militaristic actions on the continent and on the other because of trade (lots of oyster beds). Some 40 years later it was completely abandoned.
1502
 
Tlatoani   Moctezuma II
Under the rule of the 9th
Tlatoani
Moctezuma II and his predecessor Ahuitzotl the
Aztec Empire
grew to its largest extend. The transport structure of the capital Tenochtitlán was comprised of streets and canals. And with its special temples and marketplaces in particular, the city surely must have been breathtaking to live in.
1500
 
Portuguese claimed Brazil
The
Portuguese
Pedro Alvarez Cabral claimed 'The True Cross Island' when he made landfall near what is nowadays called Porto Seguro. His action was in a way the birth of Brazil.
1497
 
John Cabot claimed Newfoundland
Giovanni Caboto, an
Italian
at the time living in
England
, was commissioned by Henry VII to sail westwards to search for shorter trade routes.
1496
 
 
Santo Domingo founded
The northeastern coast of Cuba and the northern coast of Hispaniola (nowadays Haïti and the Dominican Republic) were already explored by Chr. Columbus on his first voyage. Despite the foundation of earlier settlements (La Navidad & La Isabella), the city of Santo Domingo, founded by Bartholomew Columbus, would become 'the gateway to the Carribean' for the
Spanish.
The relation with the several different
Taino
tribes seemed to be doomy, though at peace.
1493 ;  11th  Sapa Inca  Huayna Capac
The Kingdom of Cuzco had grown into an
Inca Empire
during the period of rule by his father Topa
Inca
Yupanqui and his grandfather Pachacuti
Inca
Yupanqui (who established an impressive royal estate; the Machu Picchu). Though, it was however Huayna Capac who moreover continued their policy relentlessly; the
Inca Empire
was going to grow enormously and on its peak it stretched from Quito (Equador) to Santiago (Chili).
1493
 
Huayna Capac
The Kingdom of Cuzco had during the previous centuries grown into an
Inca Empire.
Though, it was however Huayna Capac who moreover continued his ancesters policy relentlessly; the
Inca Empire
was going to grow enormously and on its peak it stretched from Quito (Equador) to Santiago (Chili).
1492
 
 
Caribbean 'discovered'
The
Italian
Christopher Columbus, commissioned by the
Spanish
, sailed west to find a shortcut to Asia. Although the journey was not successful on that account, the landfall on Guanahani (which he named San Salvador) in the Bahamas, where a
Taino
tribe lived, is considered the 'discovery of the Americas'.
1
   Western   NORTH   AMERICA
2
   Eastern   NORTH   AMERICA
3
   MIDDLE   AMERICA
4
   SOUTH   AMERICA
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development message:

The INDUSTRIAL ERA is not yet planned for construction

Ute
St.L. Iroquoians
Chichimeca
Navajo
Tuscaloosa
Aztecs
Puebloans
Creek
Mayas
Apache
Timucua
Taino
Comanche
Pawnee
Incas
New Spain
New England
New Netherlands
New Portugal
New France
US of America

 
 
 Ute
The
Utes
(Pah-Utes, Gosh-Utes etc.) lived in the Great Basin; northwest of the four corners. It seems to be assumed that they were a
Shoshone
tribe; if so, then absolutely, a major one.
 
 
 Navajo
The
Navajo
lived southwest of the four corners. They and the
Apache
had a similar language amongst other cultural aspects.
 
 
 Puebloans
The
Puebloans
(i.e. Hopi, Zuni, Acoma, Tewa, Taos, Jemez, Sandia and Picurís) lived both in nowadays Arizona as well as in New Mexico (along the Rio Grande).
 
 
 Apache
The
Apache
comprised separated tribes in the southern Rocky Mountains, the southern Great Plains and in western Texas. They and the
Navajo
had a similar language amongst other cultural aspects.
 
 
 Comanche
The
Comanche
were one of the first people who got possesion of horses; increasing their stature and allure. Originally, these horse lords lived in the southern parts of the Great Plains (nowadays mainly Texas).
 
 
 Saint Lawrence Iroquoians
The
St. Lawrence Iroquoians
lived at the time ashore of the nowadays called St. Lawrence river.
 
 
 Tuscaloosa
A major tribe amongst those who exhibited the Mississipian culture; named after one of their historic leaders:
Tuscaloosa.
 
 
 Muscogean
Also commonly known as the
Creek
. An Appalachian Mountain nation; their ancestral homelands reach from Tennessee to Georgia.
 
 
 Timucua
The highly ceremonial
Timucua
lived in nowadays northern Florida and was sort of a confederacy of many local tribes.
 
 
 Pawnee
The ancestral homelands of the
Pawnee,
the descendants of the stars, were the eastern central Great Plains (nowadays Kansas and Nebraska).
 
 
 Chichimeca
The
Chichimeca
confederation contained eight major tribes which resided in the lower region of nowadays Mexico; between Mexico City and Texas.
 
 
 Aztecs
The three paramount city states, Tenochtitlan, Texcoco, and Tlacopan (aka the Aztec Triple Alliance), had developed in just a few centuries into a highly advanced cultural
Aztec
Empire covering a large area in nowadays Mexico.
 
 
 Mayas
One of the utmost long lasting empires of the (Middle) Americas. The
Mayan
Civilization is best characterized as observers of Astronomy; this curiosity lead to an accurate Calendar System (with the use of highly advanced mathematics).
 
 
 Taino
The people of the islands; the
Taino.
Widely spread over the nowadays called Caribbean, the Taino people were masters of coastal fishing.
 
 
 Incas
The massive Tawantinsuyu, the
Inca
Empire, was the result of a combination of diplomatic and ferocious rule over several centuries. Especially during the period of Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (who established an impressive royal estate; the Machu Picchu), Topa Inca Yupanqui and Huayna Capac.
 
 
 New Spain
Spain
arrived in Middle America in 1492, established Presidios and Missions, proselytized and/or overpowered local nations, brought shiploads of gold and silver back to Europe and claimed lands as large as it was thought it would be.
 
 
 New Portugal
During the age of colonization
Portugal
was active in North America [Labrador] and in South America [mainly Brazil and Uruguay].
 
 
 New England
The
English
had a different policy. They brought, amongst soldiers, rather soon whole families to the New World. And yes, their initial settlements grew strong more rapidly; the fundament for their succes. Besides that, most often their diplomatic attitude towards local nations was fruitfull.
 
 
 New France
The
'Coureurs des bois'
were very courageous people who soon after their arrival explored large regions of land. An excellent fur trade network was soon established; it reached at its pinnacle from the Canadian tundra's to as far south as the Mexican Bay.
 
 
 New Netherlands
The
Dutch
established trading posts at 'de Noort- en zuydrivier' [in nowadays New York, New Jersey and Deleware] as well as in South America. And indeed, trade was succesfull in te beginning.
 
 
 United States of America
The mainly Anglophone inhabitants of the first 13 colonies in the New World felt after two centuries no real emotional connection with England anymore. This, in combination with high taxation on European products, made the urge to become independent grow. In 1776 a declaration was announced and a new country was born: the
United
States of America.
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1900
2nd Formative &
Early Industrial
1800
Colonial Period
Eastern North Am.
1600-1800
Colonial Period
All America's
1500
Classic Era
200
1800
1750
1700
1650
1600
1550
1500