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1497
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1492
1776
  
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Nassau

*** more later ***
1720
  
 ⚔ 
Pawnee attacked the Spanish
The
Spanish
Villasur expedition, accompanied by
Pueblo
warriors and
Apache
guides, was sent to the Great Plains to annihilate
French
influence. The expedition went north-east through Colorado, Kansas and Nebraska. The party met and unsuccesfully negotiated with the
Pawnee
, who at dawnbreak attacked the camped expedition. After a short and fierce fight they were victorious; this event ends
Spanish
influence in the Central Great Plains.
1718
  
Misión San Antonio de Valero
In the course of opposing
French
claims in the Texas area
Spanish
New Mexico founded Misión San Antonio de Valero (nowadays known as The Alamo).
1718
  
'Kings Pardon' offered
'Kings Pardon' offered to British pirates (Woodes Rogers).

*** more later ***
1706
  
Juan De Ulibarrí expedition
The
Spanish
and
Pueblo
party got going from Santa Fé, crossed the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, passed the Mesa de Maya, entered the Great Plains, reached the settlement of El Quartelejo and claimed it for Spain. During the trip De Ulibarrí improved relations with the Jicarilla (an
Apache
tribe).
1695
  
Charlestown rebuilt & renamed
Charlestown (Bahamas) ....

*** more later ***
1692
  
 
 
 
Huge Alliance
Not all Puebloans wanted to submit easily. By means of small raids and minor incidents some still opposed the Spanish. Others moved to join the 'Huge Alliance'; an alliance comprised of Hopis (a
Pueblo
tribe),
Apaches
(and their related Navajo's),
Comanches
and
Shoshone
tribes (Utes, Paiutes and more?). As a consequence the frequency of raids on
Spanish
and allied
Pueblo
villages increased. The alliance lasted for many years. However, its form of existence changed over time.
1692
  
 ⚔ 
Pueblo tribes subdued again
Spain
knew that
France
was enlarging its lands along the Mississippi river. To oppose further French expansion they wanted New Mexico back; Diego De Vargas was commissioned to take up the task. Coincidently, timing was on his side. Many
Pueblo
tribes accepted Spanish rule again. Moreover, they sided without bloodshed because they needed protection against enduring raids from
Apaches
and their closely related Navajo's.
1692
  
Earthquake demolished Port Royal
The economically thriving city of Port Royal in Jamaica met with a disaster; an earthquake demolished it completely. Later, those who fled in time founded a new city on the north side of the bay; Kingston was born.
1687
  
La Salle's Expedition ended
La Salle still wanted to find the Mississippi river, though was killed by mutineers near Navasota. Then again, mutineers turned to each other. Only two survived, did actualy find the Mississippi river and reached
French
lands in the Great Lakes Area.
1685
  
La Salle's expedition
Cavelier De La Salle was determined to achieve his major goal; he had to find the Mississippi river.
1684
  
Saint Louis founded [Texas]
Although not on the planned spot, La Salle founded Saint Louis (near Matagorda Bay) expanding
New
France. However, it would not stand the test of time; it was destroyed in 1688.
1684
  
 ⚔ 
Spanish destroyed Charlestown

*** more later ***
1680
  
 ⚔ 
Pueblo Revolt
Popé's Revolt was very well prepared; in all
Pueblo
villages actions were to start on the same day. By following this strategy they secured the surrounding villages of
Santa Fé
before they besieged it. Still though governor Antonio de Otermín managed to flee and retreated southwards. The Puebloans were victorious; all Christian tokens were to be destroyed making space for the old way of life. However, not all Pueblo tribes found the revolt a succes; unity amongst them would diminish even more.
1670
  
Charles Town founded

*** more later ***
1660
  
   
Anglo-Spanish War ended
1654
  
 ⚔ 
Anglo-Spanish War
1654
  
 ⚔ 
Portuguese ended Dutch Brazil

*** more later ***
1641
  
Luis De Rosas vs. Franciscans
A
Spanish
revolt was already going on for some years in Santa Fé: the governer Luis De Rosas versus the Franciscans. After his term De Rosas was taken prisoner, excommunicated and a few months later stabbed to death. The friction between church and government gave
Puebloans
confidence in their attitude against the Spanish.
1637
  
 ⚔ 
a battle: Utes versus Spanish
A Spanish expedition led by Luis de Rosas fought with Ute warriors (a major and influential
Shoshone
tribe). Although lots of horses were brought back to the Ute's canyon homelands, they lost quite some men who had to work in slavery in
New Mexico.
Skirmishes and raids continued until a Peace treaty in 1670.
1630
  
 ⚔ 
Dutch conquered Northern Brazil

*** more later ***
1616
  
'Fort kijk-over-al' built
The
Dutch
built 'Fort kyk-over-al' (Joost v/d Hooge).

*** more later ***
1612
  
São Luis founded
São Luis founded (De la Ravardière).

*** more later ***
1610
  
  
Santa Fé
When Don Pedro de Peralta replaced Juan De Oñate he renamed the Tewa
Pueblo
village Oghá P'o'oge in Santa Fé. Soon a Palace of Governors was built and therefore it became the official capital of
New Mexico.
From this base the Spanish wanted to evangelize all natives; they prohibited local beliefs. However, Pueblo ceremonies (e.g. Kachina Dances) were occasionaly ignored.
1599
  
 ⚔ 
Acoma Massacre
When Juan De Oñate's nephew ruthlessly harrased
Pueblo
women, the tribe reciprocated by killing the Spanish party. Events escalated and De Oñate mercilessly initiated a massacre. The few who survived were heartlessly misshaped by having them amputated a foot. Later, the
Spanish
government judged him for his atrocious behaviour.
1598
  
 
 
The 'Nuevo Mejico' Province
'San Juan de los Caballeros' founded by Juan de Oñate as a settlement to host the administration for
New Mexico.
He pronounced himself governor of all the lands in which the
Puebloans
and
Apaches
lived.
1595
  
Looking for El Dorado
Leading a flottila of four ships Walter Raleigh first of all sailed to Trinidad, overtook a
Spanish
Harbour and went on to capture San José de Oruna (and its governor Berrio). Later, the
English
party explored the Orinoco river, went further in land and found breathtaking landscapes. However no sight of an El Dorado.
1590
  
   
Chichimeca War ended
After having tried to secure trade routes with (more) presidio's, the
Spanish
turned to another strategy: the Purchase for Peace. In a way admitting their defeat they gave
Chichimecas
quantities of goods, started settlements of already assimilated Tlaxcalans amongst them and gradually converted them to Catholicism. Though, most importantly the Spanish deprecated the use of abuse, mistreatment and enslavement; a policy change which would be used more often.
1589
  
Roanoke; the lost Colony
When John White arrived at the colony in 1590, it was much earlier (probably in 1589) abandoned and completely disrupted; the only token was a word written on the pallisade: Croatan. However, did they attack the settlement or did the
English
migrate with them peacefully? The relation could have improved over time?!
1587
  
Roanoke Colony; 2nd attempt
This time the main purpose was to establish a permanent settlement. The
English
brought amongst lots of extra men entire families. Unfortunately, soon life turned out to be rather difficult out there. Colonists wanted help from England and, reluctantly however, John White sailed back.
1585
  
Roanoke Colony; 1st attempt
After having arrived at the planned destination, the party rather soon lost one of their largest ships because it was damaged in a storm when anchored offshore; food supplies and tools on board got lost. However, a fortification was built, though was abandoned in 1586.
1584
  
A reconnaissance expedition
Two ships were sent to the New World to find good spots for future colonies. Pleased with finding a small island with natural resources, they sailed back to
England
taking along two natives: Manteo (Croatoan) and Wanchese (Roanoacs).
1579
  
Nova Albion claimed
After having captured the
Spanish
Treasureship 'Nuestra Senora de la Concepcion' on the western coastline near nowadays Equador, Francis Drake sailed northwards and went ashore to take care of some repairs. While there he claimed the lands and named it 'Nova Albion'. Later, he continued his voyage westwards and in 1580 he reached
England;
Drake was the 2nd to circumnavigate the world.
1572
  
   
Inca Empire defeated
Although Pizarro was killed in 1541 by followers of his contester Diego de Almagro, the
Spanish
continued to colonize South-American territories. Conflicts between
Incas
and their foreign occupiers carried on for another three decades.
1568
  
 ⚔ 
Battle of San Juan de Ulúa
Because of being short on supplies and having to cope with compulsary repairs an English privateering flotilla led by Hawkins, Hampton and Drake sailed to the Spanish S.J. de Ulúa. After an arduous negotiation, parties agreed a truce; the
English
were allowed on the small island. Later, a Spanish escort fleet arrived with on board the new governor. So, despite the agreement the
Spanish
changed their point of view, prepared secretly for an attack and shortly after carried out their new plans.
1565
  
 ⚔ 
Massacre at Matanzas
Later, almost all shipwrecked
Frenchmen
were cruelly stabbed to death by the ten despite the fact that they had surrendered. History connotates the spot on the beach where these inhuman and barberic
Spanish
executions took place; it is called Matanzas (which means slaughters).
1565
  
 ⚔ 
Fort Carolina destroyed
The
French
met with a disaster; Ribault's ships where wrecked by a storm trying to reach St. Augustine. The
Spanish
took advantage, marched to Fort Caroline and completely destroyed it. Ruthlessly and heartlessly they even killed women and children at first, though by order of Menéndez this was stopped.
1565
  
St. Augustine founded; Florida reclaimed
At first Pedro Menéndez de Avilés planned to immediately attack Fort Carolina and reject the
French
claim of Florida. Because of a French blockade in the mouth of the river they sailed south and founded St. Augustine. Later, this settlement proved to be the first permanent
Spanish
settlement in Florida.
1562
  
Fort 'La Caroline' founded
Jean Ribault founded Fort Caroline and claimed Florida for
France.
The
Spanish
defined this as a bold and unjust action because La Florida was already claimed in 1513.
1550
  
 ⚔ 
Chichimeca War
Displeased with the Spanish, Zacateco warriors (a member of the
Chichimeca
Confederacy) raided silver carrying caravans from Purépecha to Mexico-city. The frequency of these raids grew rapidly especially since Guachichile and Guamares joined them in their cause. Because of the attack-and-run way of warfare many
Spanish
tradesmen and soldiers were killed. The Carrot and Stick answer by the Spanish only escalated the situation.
1542
  
Cabrillo's West Coast Expedition
The De Ulloa expedition was not succesfull. So, the
Spanish
governor, Antonio de Mendoza, commissioned the
Portuguese
Juan Rodrigez Cabrillo to explore the western coastline further North. Still hoping to find a connection with either the Hudson Bay or St. Lawrence Bay.
1542
  
  
  
Western Expedition ended
Francisco De Coronado hung on to a last chance of finding riches; he was told of a wealthy settlement called Quivira. The party continued east and stayed in Cicuyé (Pecos
Pueblo
); a fortified trading centre. They encountered Querecho
Apaches
on the Llano Estacado before descending to the Caprock Canyons meeting with the Teya
Apaches
. Continuing north-eastwards through Oklahoma into Kansas and after arriving in the supposed Quivira the
Coronado
Expedition ended.
1542
  
   
Mixtón War ended
De Alvarado overestimated his force and attacked the
Chichimeca
despite the fact that reinforcements were sent. Francisco Tenamaztle and Don Diego repulsed all consecutive attacks; De Alvarado died. The
Spanish
Viceroy Mendoza went to the territory with an enormous army and after capturing all cities he finished the revolt by taking the last one. And even after the fall of Mixton the wrath of the Spanish was heartless and atrocious; they enslaved, tortured, executed...
1542
  
 ⚔ 
Cartier's 3rd Voyage ended
Soon after Cartier's return in Charlesbourg-Royal it was attacked; several quick and short assaults by
St.Lawrence Iroquoians.
Furthermore, during the winter the situation turned into a devastating status. The settlement was not going to stand the test of time; Cartier had no choice but to sail back to
France.
1541
  
  
Cartier's 3rd Voyage
Jean-Francois Roberval was ordered by the
French
King Francis I to found a settlement, to proselytize the
St.Lawrence Iroquoians
and to bring back all the wealth of the "Kingdom of Saguenay". He sent Cartier ahead who founded Charlesbourg-Royal close to
Stadacona
(nowadays Quebec). When all seemed well, though doomy, Cartier started to explore the area of the Ottawa River.
1540
  
 ⚔ 
Mixtón War
With many soldiers gone (as part of the Coronado Expedition) people of the
Chichimeca
tribes took their chance to rebel against the ruthless
Spanish
power ("unprovoked killings, torture and enslavement"). After their first actions they took refuge in Mixton from where they repelled a Spanish attack ordered by Cristobal de Oñate; the Mixton War was a fact. Antonio de Mendoza, the
New Spain
governor, commisioned Pedro de Alvarado to decisively end the rebellion.
1540
  
 
 ⚔ 
  Western Expedition
Francisco Vázquez de Coronado departed with a large
Spanish
party accompanied by assimilated
Mexicans
to find the 7 cities of Cibola. They headed northwards into the White Mountain Western
Apache
area of Arizona. Later, in Hawikuh (named Granada; a Cibola city?!) they put up a presidio from which they sent out smaller parties to explore
Pueblo
lands (Zuni and Navajo). Though, before winter was coming they headed east, reached the Rio Grande and met more
Puebloans
(Sandia, Taos and Picurís); this encounter soon escalated into the Tiguex War.
1540
  
 ⚔ 
South-eastern Expedition ended
Succeeding the winter the
Spanish
went North and after reaching nowadays Tennessee southwards again following the Natchez Trail. Relations with the
Tuscaloosa
had grown all negative which resulted in the very bloody Battle of Mauvila. Although de Soto was victorious the Expedition lost quite some men and resources. Afterwards they travelled west through nowadays Mississippi and Arkansas all the way to Caddo Gap.
1539
  
 
  
South-eastern Expedition
In the beginning Hernando de Soto tried to go the same route as the Narvaez Expedition. Because of this they encountered Juan Ortiz a
Spaniard
who had lived with the
Timucua
for more than a decade; he proved to be very important for the ongoing De Soto Expedition. Though, before continuing they camped in Apalachee (a
Muscogean
tribe) lands for the winter.
1539
  
Ulloa's West Coast Expedition
With the intention to find a connection with the Gulf of St.Lawrence Francisco de Ulloa explored the western coast. The party of 3 vessels sailed from Acapulco northwards to the mouth of the nowadays called Colorado River and then all around the peninsula untill they had to go back because of the continuous harsh conditions. He never arrived in
New Spain
and his death is accompanied with unclear circumstances.
1536
  
East to West Expedition ended
Panfilo de Narvaez died in a storm trying to go back to Cuba. His command was taken over by Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and the party tried to continue westwards. Many died of illness or got killed whilst skirmishing with indigenous people. Though, de Vaca and only three others survived; they were taken captive and had to work as slaves for several years somewhere in nowadays southern Texas. They managed to escape and encountered
Spaniards
in Sinaloa who guided them to Mexico-city.
1536
  
  
French 2nd Voyage ended
Just before the weather turned cold they sailed back to Stadacona where they reluctantly had to stay for the winter. Before sailing back home in May Cartier kidnapped Sachem Donnacona to be brought to
France;
thoughtlessly jeopardizing their so dearly built up relation with the
St.Lawrence Iroquoians.
1535
  
  
French explored a northern river
On Cartier's 2nd voyage he brought Donnacona's two son's back to the discovered lands. Sailing up the nowadays St.Lawrence river they reached Stadacona; a major village of the
St.Lawrence Iroquoians.
Later, a smaller
French
party went on to explore the river more southwest. Because of the many rapids ahead they had to turn at another
St.Lawrence Iroquoians
village; the impressive Hochelaga.
1534
  
Northern sea shores explored
Cartier strongly believed he had soon achieved his main goal by sailing west on his 1st voyage: no doubt, he had reached Asian lands!? Most probably at Gaspé the party took two son's of Donnacona, a sachem of the
St.Lawrence Iroquoians
they had met, to bring to
France
as evidence for all the tales they wanted to tell.
1532
  
 ⚔ 
Conquest of the Incas
A large party of
Spanish
conquistadores under Francisco Pizarro headed south. At Cassamarca a meeting with Atahualpa was set up though it would not yet come to pass; the
Incas
were ambushed and Atahualpa taken captive.
1532 ;  13th  Sapa Inca  Atahualpa
At the end of the
Inca
Civil War, initiated by Huáscar, Atahualpa was victorious and became ruler of the whole realm. Though, he was going to be 'the last
Sapa Inca
'; the
Spanish
invasion had already started in the North.
1532
  
Atahualpa
At the end of the
Inca
Civil War, initiated by Huáscar, Atahualpa was victorious and became ruler of the whole realm. Though, he was going to be 'the last
Sapa Inca
'; the
Spanish
invasion had already started in the North.
1532
  
Huáscar defeated
The
Inca
Dynastic War, aka the
Inca
Civil War, lasted for three years. Atahualpa was Victor.
1529
  
 ⚔ 
Inca Civil War
After living in peace as two
Sapa Inca
Rulers for five years, Huáscar attacked the northern region. He imprisoned his brother, though Atahualpa broke out and assembled his armies.
1527
  
 
 ⚔ 
East to West Expedition
Panfilo de Narvaez left
Spain
with about 600 men and after a few stops in the Carribean he went ashore in Florida. They soon lost quite some men (e.g. desertion) and a few ships because of a hurricane. After a joyfull meeting with the
Timucua
their relation changed overtime. Before it turned really bad, the Expedition reached Apalachee lands. At first the
Spaniards
overrun them, though the Apalachee (a
Muscogean
tribe) continuously fought back and therefore Narvaez decided to break off the expedition.
1524 ;  13th  Sapa Inca  Huáscar
The legitimate heir Huáscar was to be
Sapa Inca
in the southern region with Cuzco as its capital.
1524 ;  13th  Sapa Inca  Atahualpa
Atahualpa was to be
Sapa Inca
of the northern region with Quito as its capital.
1524
  
Inca Empire divided
Huayna Capac and his oldest son Ninan Coyuchi died of smallpox. The realm was divided:

the southern region (Cuzco)   Huáscar
the northern region (Quito)     Atahualpa
1524
  
 ⚔ 
Conquest of Maya Kingdoms
The
Maya
Kingdom of Kaqchikel had surrendered without bloodshed. Gifts were offered to the
Spanish
conquistador Pedro de Alvarado in order to prevent War. Moreover, the Lords of Iximche, capital of the Kaqchikel, offered
Maya
Warriors to fight the other major
Maya
Highland Kingdom of K'iche (capital: Q'umarkaj). The latter did not surrender in advance, though was slaughtered in the Quetzaltenango valley.
1524
  
French New Angoulême
The
Italian
explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano sailed for
France
along the eastern coast northwards from Cape Fear to Narragansett Bay; he named it New Angoulême. The claim though was not backed up with militaristic forts, a trade centre or civil settlements.
1521
  
   
Aztecs defeated
Naturally the
Aztecs
were with many more, though, despite this, the War was swift. The technological advancement in weaponry of the
Spanish
was the main reason that the
Aztec Empire
was swept away within two years.
1520
  
Navigational passage found
Navigational passage found by the
Portuguese
Explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailing for
Spain
. Magellan became the first to circumnavigate the entire world. A huge achievement thenadays, however, still though he was not well received because his reputation soon got disgraced by his crew.
1519
  
 ⚔ 
Conquest of the Aztecs
At first the
Spanish
conquistador Hernán Cortés was welcomed by
Moctezuma II
with gifts. Moreover, he was even invited to stay as a visitor in his palace. Tensions increased between the parties overtime, which resulted in war.
1519
  
Panama City founded
'Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de Panamá' founded by Pedro Arias Dávila as the first
Spanish
settlement on the Pacific side of the Americas. This junction would become a major hub; not only because of Militaristic Conquests (e.g. the Inca Empire) but as a node in future trade routes.
1519
  
Pineda Expedition
The
Spaniard
Alonso Álvarez de Pineda explored the whole coastline of the nowadays Gulf of Mexico. Although he was killed in battle towards the end of his expedition, his map had quite some importance. He had proved that Florida was not an island and, moreover at the time, that these waters were not connected with Asia; it was a very large bay.
1518
  
  
Port Royal founded
Although the northern coast of Jamaica was already permanently colonized by the
Spanish
in 1509, it was Port Royal which became an important trading centre and well-known (wild and interesting) place in the West-Indies.
Tainos
were already subdued at the time.
1518
  
S.J. de Ulúa founded
Juan de Grijalva founded San Juan de Ulúa on an island very close to the nowadays
Mexican
coast on which a year later Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz was founded. quite some future expeditions started from this base; e.g. the
Spanish
expedition which was going to conquer the
Aztec Empire
.
1515
  
 ⚔ 
Havana founded
From the first encounters in 1496 onwards the
Tainos
were suppressed by the
Spanish.
Though moreover, in 1510 Diego Velazquez de Cuellar, and his deputy Panfilo De Narvaez, started the conquest of Cuba subduing all inhabitants. At the end De Cuéllar founded 'Habana' close to Playa Mayabeque.
1513
  
Spanish reached the Pacific
From far on a high mountain to the north-east of La Palma [Panama] the
Spaniard
Vasco Nunez de Balboa saw undiscovered waters; the Pacific Ocean was reached.
1513
  
Florida claimed
Juan Ponce de Leon sailed from Puerto Rico to the north-west. Was he looking for the 'Fountain of Youth'? Anyway, he made landfall and explored the eastern coastline southwards (to Florida Keys). On the western side of the peninsula they encountered hostile natives (the Calusa) and abandoned the lands they were exploring.
1511
  
Shipwrecked Spaniards ritually sacrificed
Yucatan
Maya
s captured shipwrecked
Spanish
sailormen and soldiers. Shortly after, they were ritually sacrificed. Only two somehow managed to escape in time.
1510
  
Nombre de Dios founded
'The Name Of God' was founded by Diego de Nicuesa. During half a century Nombre de Dios was the major harbor in the transport route of silver; from the Potosi in Bolivia to
Spain
.
1510
  
St. Maria la Antigua del Darién founded
The first (temporarily though) succesfull
Spanish
settlement on the New Continent. It was founded by Vasco Nunez de Balboa.
1508
  
  
San Juan;   the rich port
Two years earlier Juan Ponce de León had already made landfall (and had found lots and lots of gold) on this island; it was called Borinquen by its inhabitants (the
Tainos).
He initially founded Caparra for
Spain.
Some 18 years later the slightly replaced settlement was renamed into Puerto Rico.
1507
  
New World named America
Mapmaker Martin Waldseemuller initially assumed that Amerigo Vespucci was the first to discover a New World and by honoring him he named it so. After realizing his mistake he rewrote his maps, though it was too late; the name America was already widespread in use.
1502
  
Nueva Cadiz founded
Nueva Cadiz was built as a
Spanish
Base on an island (nowadays Cubagua); an outpost on one hand for militaristic actions on the continent and on the other because of trade (lots of oyster beds). Some 40 years later it was completely abandoned.
1502
  
Tlatoani   Moctezuma II
Under the rule of the 9th
Tlatoani
Moctezuma II and his predecessor Ahuitzotl the
Aztec Empire
grew to its largest extend. The transport structure of the capital Tenochtitlán was comprised of streets and canals. And with its special temples and marketplaces in particular, the city surely must have been breathtaking to live in.
1500
  
Portuguese claimed Brazil
The
Portuguese
Pedro Alvarez Cabral claimed 'The True Cross Island' when he made landfall near what is nowadays called Porto Seguro. His action was in a way the birth of Brazil.
1497
  
John Cabot claimed Newfoundland
Giovanni Caboto, an
Italian
at the time living in
England
, was commissioned by Henry VII to sail westwards to search for shorter trade routes.
1496
  
  
Santo Domingo founded
The northeastern coast of Cuba and the northern coast of Hispaniola (nowadays Haïti and the Dominican Republic) were already explored by Chr. Columbus on his first voyage. Despite the foundation of earlier settlements (La Navidad & La Isabella), the city of Santo Domingo, founded by Bartholomew Columbus, would become 'the gateway to the Carribean' for the
Spanish.
The relation with the several different
Taino
tribes seemed to be doomy, though at peace.
1493 ;  11th  Sapa Inca  Huayna Capac
The Kingdom of Cuzco had grown into an
Inca Empire
during the period of rule by his father Topa
Inca
Yupanqui and his grandfather Pachacuti
Inca
Yupanqui (who established an impressive royal estate; the Machu Picchu). Though, it was however Huayna Capac who moreover continued their policy relentlessly; the
Inca Empire
was going to grow enormously and on its peak it stretched from Quito (Equador) to Santiago (Chili).
1493
  
Huayna Capac
The Kingdom of Cuzco had grown into an
Inca Empire
during the period of rule by his father Topa
Inca
Yupanqui and his grandfather Pachacuti
Inca
Yupanqui (who established an impressive royal estate; the Machu Picchu). Though, it was however Huayna Capac who moreover continued their policy relentlessly; the
Inca Empire
was going to grow enormously and on its peak it stretched from Quito (Equador) to Santiago (Chili).
1492
  
  
Caribbean 'discovered'
The
Italian
Christopher Columbus, commisioned by the
Spanish
, sailed west to find a shortcut to Asia. Although the journey was not successful on that account, the landfall on Guanahani (which he named San Salvador) in the Bahamas, where a
Taino
tribe lived, is considered the 'discovery of the Americas'.
Column  1
   Western   NORTH - AMERICA
Column  2
   Eastern   NORTH - AMERICA
Column  3
   MIDDLE   AMERICA
Column  4
   SOUTH   AMERICA
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The (post) CLASSIC ERA is not yet planned for construction


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All (default)
Pawnee
St.L. Iroquoians
Shoshones
Apache
New England
Puebloans
Comanche
New France
Chichimeca
Tuscaloosa
New Netherlands
Aztecs
Muscogean
New Portugal
Mayas
Timucua
New Spain
Incas
Taino
US of America
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colonial period
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