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western & northern
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1328
 
1st WAR of Scottish independence ended
1307
 
 
King Edward II,  Carnarvon
Edward II, Carnarvon crowned King of
England.
1306
 
 
King Robert I, the Bruce
Robert the Bruce crowned King of
Scotland.
1305
 
 
Franco-Flemish WAR ended
King Philip IV of
France
was victorious and
Flanders
had to agree to concede e.g. Lille, Douai and Béthune. Furthermore, Flanders remainded a French feudal state, despite that, its citizens still felt confident and independent.
1305
 
 
King Louis I
Louis I crowned King of
Navarre.
He was going to be King Louis X of
France
in 1314.
1303
 
   
 
Gascony WAR ended
The
English
fought unsuccessfully to regain
Gascony
. Though, despite the
French
victory it became an
English
Duchy again in 1303; mainly because Edward Longshanks agreed to submit to Philip IV as his feudal lord.
1302
 
 
Sultan Muhammad III
Muhammad III Sultan of
Granada.
1301
 
 
Guardian   John de Soules
Guardian John de Soules ruled the
Scots
.
1299
 
 
King Haakon V,   Magnusson
During his reign the 'Akershus Festning' was built and hence moving royal functions from Bergen to Oslo.
1298
 
 
Guardian   John III Comyn
Guardian John Comyn ruled the
Scots
.
1297
 
Franco - Flemish WAR
Start of
Flanders
War of Liberation.
Flanders
was economically thriving for many decades because of its position on the crossroads of trade routes. Because of its wealth and strength, in which it was compared with
France
at least equal, it had an independent charisma.
1297
 
 
Guardian   William Wallace
Guardian William Wallace ruled the
Scots
.
1296
 
1st WAR of Scottish independence
The
Scots
fought for freedom not accepting Edward Longshanks as Overlord. After the abdication of King John Balliol
Scotland
was ruled by:
1297 - 1298 ;   Guardian  William Wallace
1298 - 1303 ;   Guardian  John Comyn
1301 - 1304 ;   Guardian  John de Soules
1296
 
 
WAR of the Outlaws ended
*** more later ***
1296
 
 
Count John I
John was brought up in
England
because of his betrothal to Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward Longshanks.
1296
 
Conspiracy against Floris V
It was
Edward Longshanks
and
Guy of Dampierre
who conspired to have
Floris V
kidnapped in 'het Muiderslot' by his own vassals. Peasants came to free him when he was to be taken to
England
, though it ended worse;
Floris V
was murdered.
1296
 
England invaded Scotland
King Edward Longshanks invaded
Scotland
because of the Auld Alliance that the
Scots
had signed with
France
with which the English were already at war.
1295
 
 
Battle of Iznalloz
And again
Castilian
and
Leónese
forces were defeated by Sultan Muhammad II of
Granada.
1295
 
 
Auld Alliance
A declaratian of (old) alliance:
Scotland
&
France
.
At this time not only the
Scottish
people but also the major Lords and even King John Balliol openly opposed the
English
Lordship over
Scotland
.
1295
 
 
King Ferdinand IV, the Summoned
Ferdinand was crowned King of
León.
1295
 
 
King Ferdinand IV, the Summoned
Ferdinand was crowned both; King of
Castile
and
León.
1294
 
   
Gascony WAR
The
English
were determined to regain
Gascony
.
1292
 
 
Great Cause ended
The Great Cause ended with a rather unwanted event for the
Scots
. The King of
England
, Edward Longshanks, took the chance and proclaimed Lordship over
Scotland
when he got Bruce and Balliol on his side.
1292
 
 
King John Balliol
John Balliol was chosen King of the
Scots
. Though, as a vassal-state of
England
with which the
Scottish
people could not agree.
1290
 
Great Cause
Queen Margaret of
Scotland
, with
Norwegian
blood, died on Orkney. Lord Robert the Bruce and Lord John Balliol were the two main pretenders amongst several others (e.g. Floris V of
Holland
).
1291
 
 
King James II, the Just
James II crowned King of Valencia and
Aragón
and Count of Barcelona.
1290
 
 
King Birger Magnusson
Birger Magnusson King of
Sweden.


1289
 
 
WAR of the Outlaws
Danish
against
Danish
outlaws &
Norway
.
1287
 
St. Lucia's flood
Many people didn't survive this natural disaster.
1286
 
 
Queen Margaret
Margaret Maid of
Norway
, a 3 year old child at the time, inherited the title Queen of
Scots
.
1286
 
 
King Eric VI,   Menved
He had financial problems, mainly because of his own doings.
1285
 
 
King Philip IV,   the Fair
Also known as 'le Roi de fer'; due to his character his reign had bureaucratic aspects.
1285
 
 
King Alfonso III of Aragón
Alfonso III crowned King of Valencia and
Aragón
and Count of Barcelona.
1284
 
 
King Sancho IV, the Brave
Sancho was crowned both; King of
Castile
and
León.
1284
 
 
King Sancho IV, the Brave
Sancho was crowned both; King of
Castile
and
León.
1280
 
 
Battle of Moclín
A
Castilian
and
Leónese
army had to endure heavy losses when it was lured into a trap by Sultan Muhammad II of
Granada.
1280
 
 
King Eric II,   Priest-Hater
Eric Magnusson's main issue was the 'War of the Outlaws'.
1279
 
 
King Denis of Portugal
Denis, the poet, was going to be King of
Portugal
for almost half a century during which a great economic advancement was achieved; he had focussed on production (e.g. mines) as well as on agriculture. Furthermore, his poetry was well received.
1279
 
 
 
Siege of Algeciras
For centuries Algeciras (and of course its harbour) was used as the gateway to al-Andalus and therefore strategically important to all parties involved. The
Castilian
and
Leónese
forces started to besiege the Muslim city in 1278 (at the same time the fleet arrived). The long lasting siege was not successful because the
Moroccan
and
Granadian
defenders were constantly resupplied, whereas the attackers started to suffer illnesses.
1278
 
 
 
Naval Battle of Algeciras
Just off the coast at Algeciras the
Castilian
and
Leónese
fleet, sent from Seville to block the opponents ships, was almost completely destroyed by a fleet of
Morocco
(combined with some 12 ships sent by the Emirate of
Granada).
1276
 
 
King Peter III of Aragón
Peter III crowned King of Valencia and
Aragón
and Count of Barcelona.
1275
 
 
 
Battle of Martos
At this battle the forces from
Castile
and
León
were (again) decisively defeated by the combined armies of the Emirate of
Granada
and
Morocco.
1275
 
 
 
Battle of Écija
The Emirate of
Granada
was frequently targetted by raiding parties. When Muhammad II had called for aid from
Morocco,
his request was positively answered. A strong Army marched north and was halted by forces from
Castile
and
León.
A battle took place near Écija in which the Muslim armies were victorious.
1275
 
 
King Magnus III Birgersson
Magnus Birgersson King of
Sweden
.

1274
 
 
Queen Joan I
Joan I crowned Queen of
Navarre.
She was to become Queen consort of King Philip IV of
France
as she maried him in 1285.
1273
 
 
Sultan Muhammad II al-Faqih
Muhammad al-Faqih Sultan of
Granada.
1272
 
 
King Edward I,   Longshanks
Edward I Longshanks reformed royal administration and common law. Because of his unwanted actions in
Scotland
he was also called the Hammer of the
Scots
.
1270
 
 
King Philip III,   the bold
Philip III King of
France.


1270
 
 
King Henry I
Henry I crowned King of
Navarre.
1269
 
End of the Almohad Caliphate
Idris al-Wathiq died in Marrakesh [Morocco].
History connotates: it marked the end of the
Almohad
Caliphate. It was overthrown by the Marinids; the new rising Sultanate in Morocco.
1267
 
 
 
Treaty of Badajoz
A treaty about the Kingdom of Algarve in particular, but also about other borders, amity, friendship and alliance, between the Kingdom of
Portugal
(King Alfonso III) and the Kingdom of Castile (King Alfonso X of
Castile
and
León).
1266
 
 
Caliph Idris al-Wathiq
Idris al-Wathiq was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate in a period in which the Almohad Dynasty was losing its power to the Marinids; a rising new Sultanate in Morocco.
1266
 
 
 
 
Revolt ended
Soon the Armies of
Castile
and
León
suppressed the Revolt in and around Jerez, whereas James I of
Aragón
took care of the Conquest of Murcia on behalf of his daughter's husband (King Alfonso X of
Castile
and
León).
1264
 
 
 
Mudéjar Revolt
Muslim resistance, openly aided by the Emirate of
Granada,
became an organised up-rising in Southern Iberia; the Mudéjar Revolt. Rather soon it was successful in taking a few major cities (Jerez and Murcia). And accordingly, the
Taifa
of Murcia had declared itself independent again in 1264.
1263
 
 
King Magnus VI,   the Law-Mender
Magnus Haakonsson worked not only on an improvement of the
Norwegian
Law-code, but on better international relations as well. In particular with
England
and
Sweden
.
1263
 
Battle of Largs
Although this major battle ended indecisive, the
Scots
got control of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man (Peace Treaty of Perth; 1266. Signed by Alexander III of
Scotland
and Magnus VI of
Norway
).
1263
 
 
King Magnus VI,   the Law-Mender
Magnus Haakonsson worked not only on an improvement of the
Norwegian
Law-code, but on better international relations as well. In particular with
England
and
Sweden
.
1259
 
 
King Eric V Klipping
Eric Klipping King of
Denmark.


1256
 
 
Count Floris V
He inherited the title at the age of two, though was faithfully guarded by Otto II of Guelders. Floris V became a
Dutch
hero in latter years mainly because he did not suppress the peasants at the time; therefore, he is also known as The God of the Commoners.
1255
 
Lisbon appointed Capital
Lisbon became the official Capital of
Portugal.
1254
 
War of Flemish Succession ended
The series of conflicts ended when King Louis IX of
France
intervened for the second time.
1253
 
 
King Theobald II
Theobald II crowned King of
Navarre;
he continued his father's main policies.
1252
 
 
King Christopher Valdemarsson
Christopher Valdemarsson King of
Denmark.


1252
 
 
King Alfonso X, the Wise
Alfonso was crowned both; King of
Castile
and
León.
1252
 
 
King Alfonso X, the Wise
Alfonso was crowned both; King of
Castile
and
León.
1251
 
 
Count Guy of Dampierre
Whilst the War of Succession was still raging on it was Guy of Dampierre who was pronounced Count.
1250
 
 
King Abel Valdemarsson
Abel Valdemarsson King of
Denmark.


1250
 
 
King Valdemar Birgersson
Valdemar Birgersson King of
Sweden.


1249
 
Algarve conquered
Alfonso III of
Portugal
ended in 1249 the Portuguese 'Reconquista' by taking the last city Faro. The
Taifa
of Algarve became a self-governing Kingdom within the Kingdom of
Portugal.
1249
 
 
King Alexander III
Ruled the
Scots
during a war with the
Norwegians
.
1248
 
 
Siege of Seville
The armies of King Ferdinand III of
Castile
and
León
already started to besiege the city as early as in the summer of 1247. With mainly the principle of 'time on their side', which logically caused severe famine suffering amongst the citizens of Seville, they annexed the city one and a half year later; the
Taifa
of Seville became Castilian.
1248
 
 
King Alfonso III of Portugal
Alfonso III King of
Portugal
is by historians marked as a King with a progressive vision.
1248
 
 
Caliph Hafs Umar al-Murtada
Hafs Umar al-Murtada was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1247
 
 
Count William I
William, actually William II of Dampiere, was proclaimed Count of
Flanders
when King Louis IX consented;
Flanders
was at the time a vassal-state of
France
.
1246
 
 
 
Siege of Jaén
After a few other unsuccessful occasions of trying to conquer the city of Jaén, the armies of King Ferdinand III of
Castile
and
León
did take the city in 1246. The
Taifa
of Jaén became Castilian and, moreover, Muhammad I of
Granada
submitted to King Ferdinand and became officially a vassal state.
1244
 
War of Flemish Succession
A series of conflicts about who was to rule
Flanders
. The descendants of both Margaret's 1st and 2nd marriage claimed legal inheritance.
1244
 
 
Countess Margaret II
Margaret of Constantinople and her sister Joan were raised in Paris with King Philip II as ward. Because of family-related reasons she was called Margaret the Black.
1243
 
Saintonge WAR ended
A peace treaty was signed;
France
was victor.

A revival of the
Angevin
Empire was forever lost for the opponents.
1242
 
 
Caliph al-Hasan as-Said al-Mutadid
al-Hasan as-Said al-Mutadid II was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1242
 
Saintonge WAR
Whilst the
Angevin
empire didn't exist anymore, there were still battles to be fought. In this case because vassals in Poitou wouldn't agree with the succession of Louis' brother.
1241
 
 
King Eric IV,   Ploughpenny
Eric Valdemarsson King of
Denmark.


1241
 
'Code of Jutland'
A civil code to imply unity of governmental laws throughout
Denmark
.
1240
 
Norwegian Civil War
In a way a, for more than a century lasting, Class Struggle; a war concerning pretenders to the throne: legitimate-or-not-royals, aristocrats with allies, peasants with their leaders (the Birkebeiners) and prominent religious believers with their followers (the Baglers).
1238
 
 
 
Emirate of Granada established
A last
Almohad
rather still large region (Malaga, Granada & Almeria) transformed into The Emirate of
Granada
with Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Nasr as its Sultan.
1237
 
Battle of the Puig
The
Taifa
of Valencia was decisively taken by the Kingdom of
Aragón.
1236
 
 
Siege of Córdoba
The
Taifa
of Córdoba was led by competing rulers which had stirred civil unrest. Partly because of that, the city was annexed in an unusual way by Ferdinand III (King of
Castile
and
León)
, who afterwards signed a truce with Emir Ibn Hud.
1234
 
 
Count William II
Also known as 'Willem van Henegouwen'; founder of the 'Binnenhof' (nowadays the residence of the
Dutch
Government).
1234
 
 
King Eric XI Ericsson
Eric the Lisp and Lame became King of
Sweden
for a second period.

1234
 
 
King Theobald I
Theobald crowned King of
Navarre.
His relation with a local representative of the Catholic organization was on bad terms. Furthermore, he had Navarre divided into districts improving the administrative system.
1233
 
Siege of Burriana
Almohad
rule had faded in the Province of Castellón and the city of Burriana had become a part of the reborn
Taifa
of Valencia since 1229. Though, not for long; the city was attacked and taken by James the Conqueror of
Aragón.
1232
 
 
Caliph Abd al-Wahid II
Muhammad ar-Rashid Abd al-Wahid II was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1231
 
 
Battle of Jerez
The armies of the
Taifa
of Murcia were defeated in Jerez. This later glorified battle, in the context of being important to Spanish Christian History, had a contradictory downside as well; the 'cavalgada', which was a major part of the success for the
Castilians
and
Leónese,
brought death and destruction on their pillaging route through the Province of Cadíz.
1230
 
 
King Ferdinand the Saint
Ferdinand was crowned King of
León.


History connotates: a united
Castile
and
León.
1230
 
Siege of Jaén
The city of Jaén (
Taifa
of Jayyãn) was besieged by Ferdinand III of
Castile.
Though, when his father King Alfonso IX of
León
died, he broke off the attack and travelled north.
1229
 
Siege of Medina Mayurqa
The siege was going to last long; it took the
Aragón
allied army more than three months to place a banner on top of a castle's tower. The Conquest of Majorca was successful though resistance kept going for a few years by
Almohads
who inhabited the island.
1229
 
Battle of Portopí
James the Conqueror of
Aragón
wanted to have control of the island of Majorca and this Battle of Portopí was won within a day. Many
Almohads
had though fled into Medina Mayurqa.
1229
 
 
King Knut II, the Tall
Knut Holmgersson King of
Sweden.


1229
 
 
Caliph Idris al-Ma'mun
Idris al-Ma'mun was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1227
 
 
Caliph Yahya al-Mu'tasim
Yahya al-Mu'tasim was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1226
 
 
King Saint Louis IX
The reformer of Royal Justice and hence a notable Capetian Ruler.
1224
 
 
Caliph Abdallah al-Adil
Abdallah al-Adil was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1224
 
 
Caliph Abd al-Wahid I
Abd al-Wahid was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1224
 
 
Fall into (Almohad) Taifas
An unofficial beginning of the end of the
Almohad
Caliphate on the Iberian peninsula; it started to fall into
Taifas.
1223
 
 
King Louis VIII,   the Lion
He brought the County of Toulouse under
French
rule.
1223
 
 
King Sancho II of Portugal
Sancho II King of
Portugal
.
1222
 
 
Count Floris IV
Had to face struggles to the east of
Holland
; in Utrecht, 'Drenthe' and in the North [Bremen; nowadays Germany].

1222
 
 
King Eric XI,   the Lisp & Lame
Eric Ericsson King of
Sweden.



1217
 
 
King Haakon IV,   the Old
His rule endured 46 years. Haakon Haakonsson was responsible for a turning point in
Norwegian
history; his army defeated Skule Bardsson (who was regent of
Norway
during Haakon's childhood) and hence the Civil War came to an end.
1217
 
 
1st Barons' WAR ended
The changed royal situation in
England
made several Baron's turn towards Henry III. Moreover, they jointly attacked their former ally. The thenadays yet to become King of
France
Louis VIII had to withdraw and accept some losses. Despite all this, later that year the 1st Baron's war ended with a Status Quo Ante Bellum (Kingston-upon-Thames).
1217
 
 
King Ferdinand III, the Saint
Ferdinand was crowned King of
Castile.
1217
 
 
Queen Berengaria of Castile
Berengaria was crowned Queen of
Castile.
1216
 
 
 
King Henry III,  of Winchester
When John Lackland had died, Henry III of Winchester was crowned King of
England
. Despite the fact that he (like his predecessors) also was a member of the House of Plantagenet, this event is marked as the end of the
Angevin
Period.
1216
 
 
King Johan I Sverkersson
Johan Sverkersson King of
Sweden.


1215
 
Magna Carta Libertatum
An
Angevin
document put down by the Archbishop of Canterbury (by order of King John Lackland). Rewritten it formed a part of the peace treaty in 1217 with which the 1st Barons' War formally came to an end.
1215
 
 
1st Barons' WAR
Rebellious
English
landowners, supported by Prince Louis of
France
(the thenadays future King), fought against
Angevin
-Allied-Forces led by John Lackland.
1214
 
 
King Alexander II
His reign would endure 35 years.
1214
 
 
Anglo-French WAR ended
The war ended with the decisive Battle of Bouvines in the County of
Flanders
.
1214
 
 
King Henry I of Castile
Henry, the eldest son of the late King Alfonso by Eleanor of England, was crowned King of
Castile.
1213
 
 
King James I, the Conqueror
James I crowned King of
Aragón
and Count of Barcelona.
1213
 
   
Anglo-French WAR
John Lackland tried to regain lost continental territories and attacked
Normandy
(at the time a
French
province).
1213
 
 
Caliph Yusuf II
Abu Yaqub Yusuf al-Mansir was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1212
 
 
 
Battle of L.N. de Tolosa
A joint army of the Kingdoms of
Castile,
Aragón
and
Navarre
defeated the
Almohad
army led by al-Nasir. History connotates: the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa; a mark in Spanish History.
1211
 
 
King Alfonso II of Portugal
Alfonso II crowned King of
Portugal
. Unlike his predecessors he was not focussed on territorial enlargement.
1210
 
Siege of al-Dãmus
The Kingdom of
Aragón
succeeded in conquering a strategically important
Almohad
Stronghold in Ademús.
1208
 
 
King Eric X, the survivor
Eric Knutsson King of
Sweden.


1206
 
 
Count William I
The Loon War ended and a peace agreement was signed. Although there was a division in lands it was William I who afterwards was called Count of
Holland
; he, son of Floris III and the
Scottish
noble lady Ada of Huntingdon, was in a way victorious. During his reign (almost 20 years) many swamps were turned into polders flourishing
Dutch
economy.
1206
 
Loon WAR ends
William's
North-Hollanders
came up with a rigorous tactic: the Kennemers broke dykes, flooded a large area and consequently bided time. Later, after the arrival of a big army of
Zeelanders
and
South-Hollanders
who joined William, the tide turned again. Now it was Louis' turn to flee, though he was chased and defeated.
Mendicant Orders
A religious way of life.
1205
 
 
Countess Joan
Joan achieved major changes both social and economic; e.g. she helped setting up the Mendicant Orders, ordered canals to be built and improved wool-trade with
England
. Joan co-reigned with husbands until 1244. She was succeeded by her sister Margaret.
1204
 
   
 
Normandy Campaigns ended
House of Plantagenet versus House of Capet.

After the successful siege of Château Gaillard by the
French
, John Lackland lost continental
Angevin
territories;
Normandy
became a
French
province. Philip II continued to take Maine,
Anjou
& Poitou.
1204
 
 
King Inge Bardsson
At the cost of seceding Viken [nowadays known as Oslofjord] to the Baglers, King Inge Bardsson gave
Norwegian
citizens peace for almost a decade.
1204
 
 
King Guttorm Sigurdsson
At the age of 4 Guttorm Sigurdsson became King of
Norway
and was guarded by Haakon the Crazy. In August he died of illness.

1203
 
Loon WAR
War of succession in the County of
Holland
between William, brother of the late Count Dirk VII, and Ada who had claimed to be Countess. William besieged Leiden, conquered it and captured Ada. Louis van Loon, Ada's husband, reacted by attacking
Holland
with a massive army (many Allies); William had to flee.
1203
 
 
Countess Ada
Ada, daughter of Dirk VII, claimed the County of
Holland
immediately after the death of her father. therefore she had to marry; she did so at the age of 15 to Louis van Loon.
1202
 
 
King Valdemar II,   the Victorious
Valdemar the Victorious King of
Denmark.
Again a long ruler of the House of Estridsen (39 years); he introduced the 'Code of Jutland' not long before he died.

1202
 
   
Normandy Campaigns
House of Plantagenet versus House of Capet.
The
Angevin
Empire had become more and more
English
over the past decades thenadays and when King John succeeded King Richard, it was not only King Philip II of
France
who was not pleased. He started
Normandy
Campaigns with the help of Brittany, Maine and
Anjou
. Though, King John managed to be victorious at Mirebeau.
1202
 
 
King Haakon III,  Sverresson
King
Haakon Sverresson's period of reign was not going to last long; he fell ill and died on New Years Day 1204.
1199
 
 
King John Lackland
Angevin
King John ruled, as the 3rd of the House of Plantagenet, in difficult times and was not always successful, partly because of his personality. His period of reign was marked as 'the Fall of the
Angevin
Empire'.
1199
 
 
Caliph Muhammad al-Nasir
Muhammad al-Nasir was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1196
 
 
King Peter II, the Catholic
Peter II crowned King of
Aragón
and Count of Barcelona.
1195
 
 
King Sverker II, the Younger
Sverker Karlsson King of
Sweden.


1195
 
Battle of Alarcos
King Alfonso VIII of
Castile
lost this battle to Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur, Caliph of the
Almohad
Empire.
1194
 
 
Count Baldwin IX
Baldwin fought to regain
Flemish
territory given away by a predecessor (Count Philip). Though, he became a legend in history as Baldwin I, the Latin Emperor, because of his actions in the 4th crusade; in 1204 he was crowned in the Hagia Sophia.
1194
 
 
King Sancho VII
Sancho crowned King of
Navarre.
He had to face huge territorial unrest.
1191
 
 
Countess Margaret I
At first her claim to be Countess of
Flanders
was not acknowledged by Ghent and King Philip II of
France
. And although her period of reign was rather short, she can be looked at as the first woman to have ruled
Flanders
. She co-ruled with her husband Baldwin VIII, who was actually Baldwin V of Hainaut.
1190
 
 
Count Dirk VII
Dirk VII of
Holland
was, like his father before him, on good terms with the
Holy Roman Emperor
.
1189
 
 
King Richard,  the Lionheart
A warrior ruler, the 2nd of the House of Plantagenet, who spent his life mainly abroad.
1188
 
 
King Alfonso IX
Alfonso was crowned King of
León.
1185
 
 
King Sancho I of Portugal
Sancho the Populator King of
Portugal
.
1184
 
 
King Sverre I,  Sigurdsson
King Sverre Sigurdsson was a prominent leader of the Birkebeiners.
1184
 
 
Caliph Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur
Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Mansur was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1184
 
 
Siege of Santarém
King Alfonso I of
Portugal
, aided by King Ferdinand II of
León,
repulsed an
Almohad
Army at the (2nd) Siege of Santarém.
1182
 
 
King Knut VI
Knut Valdemarsson King of
Denmark.


1180
 
 
King Philip II,   Dieudonné
The by god-given ruler also known as Philip Augustus; the 7th of the House of Capet. He was going to be successful in the Plantagenet - Capetian rivalry during his rule.
1174
 
Angevin Empire Pinnacle
In a way the ultimate climax of the
Angevin
Empire on the continent and on the isles; sort of a commonwealth which was formed mainly by marriage and inheritance. The name was derived from
Anjou
in which 'the House of Plantagenet' had its origin.
1174
 
 
 
 
The Revolt ends
Henry II successfully repelled all his opponents whom all submitted to him. His wife (Eleanor, the Duchess of
Aquitaine
) and his 3 sons even choose to reconcile. Moreover, William the Lion was captured at the Battle of Alnwick and
Scotland
became a vassal state of the
Angevin
Empire; the Peace Treaty was signed in Falaise.
1173
 
 
 
The Revolt
Angevin
Normandy
was attacked from all sides; the Counts of
Flanders
and Boulogne from the east, Henry's wife Eleanor of
Aquitaine
and their son young Henry (allied with the
French
King) from the south and the Duke of Brittany from the west. Furthermore, amongst uprisings in
England
itself it was a
Scottish
Army led by William the Lion who attacked
England
from the North.
1173
 
 
King Knut I
Knut Eriksson King of
Sweden.
His reign was marked by the importance of (royal or not) written documents.

1173
 
Civil War ended
The Civil War between the House of Ericsson and the House of Sverkersson came to an end when the last kinsmen of Sverker, Kol and Burislev, were killed.
1171
 
 
Ireland conquered
Gaelic
Ireland
was conquered; the
Angevin
Empire established Lordship over
Ireland
.
1170
 
Thomas Becket assassinated
Thomas Becket (allied with Louis VII of
France
) was assassinated. Historians believe that orders for the act might have been given by Henry II because of an ongoing disagreement about religious matters.
1169
 
Angevin invasion in Ireland
Gaelic
Ireland
was invaded from the South-East.
1168
 
 
Count Philip I
Whilst
Flanders
grew to its largest extent, Philip (of Alsace) was focused on international affairs; he acted as a mediator, though was not successful on a few occasions. 'De Gravesteen' in Ghent was ordered to be built by Philip in around 1180.
1167
 
King Karl Sverkersson murdered
A Civil War had started between the House of Ericsson and the House of Sverkersson; Karl was murdered by Knut.
1165
 
 
King William I,   the Lion
The rough King ruled the
Scots
for half a century.
1164
 
The Battle of Renfrew
Somerled is repelled; the ruler of the
Scottish
Isles attacked a Royal
Scottish
Army (Malcolm IV).
1164
 
 
King Alfonso II, the Troubadour
Alfonso II crowned King of
Aragón
and Count of Barcelona.
1163
 
 
Caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf
Abu Yaqub Yusuf was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1161
 
 
King Karl VII Sverkersson
A short revival of the House of Sverker occured when Karl was crowned King of
Sweden.


1161
 
 
King Magnus V Erlingsson
Became King at the age of five and was three years later crowned King of
Norway
in Bergen.
1158
 
 
King Alfonso VIII, the Noble
Alfonso was crowned King of
Castile.
1157
 
The Battle of Grathe Heath
The civil war came to an end. A tripartition was agreed upon: Jutland (Valdemar I), Scania (Sveyn III) and Zealand & Funen (Knut V). Unexpectedly, it all ended with a little turn; the treacherous Sveyn killed Knut (at the Bloodfeast of Roskilde) and Valdemar somehow fled. Later that year, at this battle of Grathe Heath Sveyn was slain.
1157
 
 
King Sancho III, the Desired
Sancho was crowned King of
Castile.
1157
 
 
King Ferdinand II
Ferdinand was crowned King of
León.
1157
 
 
Count Floris III
During his reign the County of
Holland
was still a vassal of the
Holy Roman Empire
ruled by Frederick Barbarossa thenadays. Despite the past, this relation was on good terms during his reign. therefore Floris gained an Emperial title.
1156
 
 
King Eric IX,  the Lawgiver
Although his ordinal number otherwise suggests, King Eric IX was the founder of the House of Eric of
Sweden.


1154
 
 
King Henry II,   Curtmantle
In
England
the first ruler of the House of Plantaganet; his period of reign was marked as 'the Rise of the
Angevin
Empire'.
1153
 
 
The Anarchy ended
In a way the end of the
Anglo-Norman Age
(which started with the victory of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings).

England was dawning into an
Angevin
Empire
1153
 
 
King Malcolm IV, Virgo
Malcolm the Maiden King of
Scotland
.
1150
 
 
Duke Henry II
Henry II was made Duke of
Normandy
by Geoffrey Plantaganet.

1150
 
 
King Sancho, the wise
Sancho crowned King of
Navarre
(heretofore known as Pamplona).
1148
 
 
Siege of Tortosa
A
Crusader
army, under command of Raymond Berengar IV Count of Barcelona (and maried with Queen Petronella of
Aragón),
besieged the city of Tortosa. Despite the fact that in Africa the
Almoravids
were overthrown, they still put up quite some resistance before they surrendered.
1147
 
 
Caliph Abd al-Mu'min
The
Almoravid
Caliphate was overthrown.
Abd al-Mu'min was crowned Caliph of the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1147
 
 
Siege of Lisbon
With the aid of many
Crusaders,
who were en route to the Holy Land, the King of
Portugal,
Alfonso Henrique, besieged and finally took the city of Lisbon, which was part of the
Taifa
of Badajoz since 1145 (theretofore part of the
Almoravid
Caliphate).
History connotates: Lisbon becomes Portuguese.
1147
 
Conquest of Santarém
King Alfonso Henrique of
Portugal
attacked and took the Muslim city of Santarém, which was thenadays a strategically important stronghold for the
Almoravid
Empire.
1147
 
 
Sultan Ishaq ibn Ali
Ishaq ibn Ali was crowned Sultan of the
Almoravids
though died soon after the Siege of Marrakech; the Almoravid Caliphate was (in Morocco) overthrown by the
Almohad
Caliphate.
1146
 
 
King Valdemar I,   the Great
During an eleven years lasting civil war, he outlived all the other pretenders to the throne; his reign (36 years) was marked as 'the revival of
Denmark
'.
1146
 
 
Sultan Ibrahim ibn Tashfin
Ibrahim ibn Tashfin was crowned Sultan of the
Almoravid
Caliphate.
1144
 
 
Duke Geoffrey Plantaganet
Geoffrey Plantagenet became Duke of
Normandy
; still a vassal state of the
Anglo-Norman
Empire.
1143
 
 
Emir Tashfin ibn Ali
Tashfin ibn Ali was crowned Emir of the
Almoravid
Caliphate.
1143
 
 
Fall into (Almoravid) Taifas
An unofficial beginning of the end of the
Almoravid
Empire on the Iberian peninsula; it started to fall into
Taifas.
1139
 
 
King Alfonso I of Portugal
After conquering the Alentejo Alfonso Henrique was crowned the first King of
Portugal;
an independent new nation.

1139
 
 
Siege of Oreja
After a six months lasting siege the
Almoravids
surrendered to Alfonso VII of
León.
1139
 
Battle of Ourique
Alfonso Henrique had went south to attack the Alentejo [an Almoravid region at the time]. Sultan Ali ibn Yusuf ordered his governor in Cordoba [thenadays also part of the
Almoravid
Caliphate], Muhammad Az-Zubayr Ibn Umar, to defend the region. The battle took place in Ourique and was won by
Portugal.
1137
 
 
King Eric III,   the Lamb
Eric the Lamb was crowned King of
Denmark.


1137
 
 
Queen Petronella of Aragón
Petronella crowned Queen of
Aragón.
1137
 
 
King Louis VII,   the younger
Louis VII King of
France.


1137
 
Duchess Eleanor,   of Aquitaine
A legend in history. Eleanor, the Duchess of
Aquitaine,
was going to be both Queen Consort of
France
(married with Louis VII) and of
England
(married with Henry II).
1136
 
 
King Inge I,   Haraldsson
He and his brothers were guided by guardians during childhood; a rather peaceful period of the already started Civil War. Though, when they all approached an adult life, relations got rough.
1135
 
The Anarchy
The start of an
Anglo-Norman
Civil WAR which mainly took place in
Normandy
.
1135
 
 
 
King Stephen of Blois
Stephen of Blois took the
Anglo-Norman
Crown despite the oath to support the Empress Matilda.
1135
 
Emperor Alfonso VII of Spain
King Alfonso VII of all
Spain
.
1134
 
 
King Eric II Emune
Eric Emune was crowned King of
Denmark.


1134
 
 
King Ramiro II, the Monk
Ramiro crowned King of
Aragón.
1134
 
 
King García Ramírez, the Restorer
García Ramírez crowned King of
Pamplona.
As a consequence Pamplona became independent from
Aragón,
with which it had maintained a good (political) friendship for more than half a century.
1134
 
 
Battle of Fraga
The neighbouring
Almoravids
came to aid the besieged city of Fraga, which resulted in a heavy loss for King Alfonso the Battler of
Aragón
and
Pamplona
. 'El Batallador' died shortly after the battle; it marked the end of a period in which he had taken lots of regions from the Almoravids (f.e. Zaragoza).
1134
 
 
The Battle of Fotevik
King Niels of
Denmark
and his son, Magnus the Strong of
Sweden
, were defeated by Eric Emune in Scania (which at the time belonged to
Denmark
).
1132
 
 
King Sverker I, the Elder
During the absence of the
Danish
Prince Magnus the
Swedes
appointed Sverker as their King.
1132
 
Civil War had diminished
The House of Stenkill had disappeared over the years. The
Swedes
were without a King, although Magnus the Strong from
Denmark
was acknowledged but not accepted as King of Götaland.
1130
 
Norwegian Civil War
In a way a, for more than a century lasting, Class Struggle; a war concerning pretenders to the throne: legitimate-or-not-royals, aristocrats with allies, peasants with their leaders (the Birkebeiners) and prominent religious believers with their followers (the Baglers).
1130
 
 
King Harald IV Gille
Became King of
Norway
at the start of a long lasting Civil War.
1129
 
Count Geoffrey Plantagenet
Geoffrey of
Anjou
, aka the handsome, founder of the Plantagenet Dynasty was pronounced Count.
1128
 
Battle of São Mamede
Theresa's son, Alfonso Henrique, defeated the armies of his mother at this battle in Guimarães. Because of the fact that all Portuguese foreign vassalage ties were cut from then onwards (unlike Theresa, who had still maintained a relation with the County of Léon), this event is seen as the stepstone to an independent
Portugal.
1128
 
 
Count Thierry
After the death of William Clito there was only one heir left; Thierry of Alsace (Diederik) became Count of
Flanders
. He, like many Counts at the time, had a crusading history and ruled until he died in 1168.
1127
 
 
Count William Clito
At the hand of King Louis of
France
William Clito was accepted by
Flemish
Barons as their new Count. Though, loyalty turned towards Thierry of Alsace. Despite this, William was victorious in the Battle of Axspoele. Onwards he went, though was fatally wounded when he besieged Aalst. He was burried in the Abbey of St. Bertin.
1126
 
 
King Alfonso VII, the Emperor
Alfonso was crowned both; King of
León
and
Castile.
1126
 
 
King Alfonso VII, the Emperor
Alfonso was crowned both; King of
León
and
Castile.
1124
 
 
King David I mac Maíl Choluim
The Prince of Cumbrians marked his rule with a Davidian Revolution; introducing e.g. a feudal system.
1121
 
 
Count Dirk VI
Also called Floris the Black.

1120
 
 
Battle of Cutanda
'El Batallador', King Alfonso of
Aragón
and
Pamplona,
defeated the
Almoravids
in the Battle of Cutanda.
1119
 
 
Count Charles the Good
Charles got the title because he was good to the people he represented; e.g. he helped in 1125 those who had a food shortage. Much later, he was beautified by the pope.
1117
 
 
Queen Theresa of Portugal
Countess Theresa had to handle, since her father died in 1109 and her husband in 1112, all political and militaristic affairs. Soon, she was looked at as the Queen of
Portugal
. Even more so, after the official recognition by the Holy Catholic Church in 1117.

1111
 
 
Count Baldwin VII
He fought at the side of King Louis the Fighter of
France
against the
Anglo-Norman
Empire of King Henry I and was fatally wounded in the battle of Bures-en-Bray.
1110
 
Historia Silense
A document about Iberian history with focus on Ferdinand I of
León.

Exact year concerning the (finishing of the) writing is unknown.
1109
 
 
Queen Urraca, the Reckless
Urraca was crowned both; Queen of
León
and
Castile.
1109
 
 
Queen Urraca, the Reckless
Urraca was crowned both; Queen of
León
and
Castile.
1108
 
 
Battle of Uclés
Again a battle lost for Alfonso VI, King of
Castile
and
León.
The
Almoravids
established a decisive victory, though did not succeed in taking Toledo afterwards.
1108
 
 
King Louis VI,   the fighter
Reinforced his power considerably; fought both local robber-barons and the
French
counties under
Anglo-Norman
rule.
1107
 
 
King Alexander I, the Fierce
Alexander the Fierce King of
Scotland.


1106
 
 
Sultan Ali ibn Yusuf
Ali ibn Yusuf was crowned Sultan of the
Almoravid
Caliphate.
1106
 
 
King Henry I, Beauclerc
As the victor of the Battle of Tinchebray Henry Beauclerc (the 4th son of William) extended his
Anglo-Norman
Empire with
Normandy
.
1106
 
The Battle of Tinchebray
Henry I invaded
Normandy
; his dismounted
Anglo-Norman
knights played a decisive role.
1104
 
 
King Niels
Niels Sveynsson, the last of 5 brothers, ascended to the throne of
Denmark.


1104
 
 
King Alfonso 'el Batallador'
When Alfonso's brother (King Peter I) died, he was crowned King of both;
Aragón
and
Pamplona.
1104
 
 
King Alfonso 'el Batallador'
When Alfonso's brother (King Peter I) died, he was crowned King of both;
Pamplona
and
Aragón.
1103
 
 
King Sigurd I,   the Crusader
The reign (27 years) of Sigurd Magnusson is nowadays called a 'golden-age'.
1100
 
 
King Henry I,  Beauclerc
Henry Beauclerc (the 4th son of William) seized the
Anglo-Norman
crown shortly after William Rufus died hunting.
1097
 
 
King Edgar Probus
Edgar the Valiant King of
Scotland.


1097
 
 
Battle of Consuegra
Alfonso VI, King of
Castile
and
León
, had to retreat when it soon got obvious that the battle was going to be won by the
Almoravids
under Yusuf ibn Tashfin.
1096
 
Departure of the 1st Crusade
The departure of participants of the 1st Crusade.
When they arrived in the Levant it all started with besieging Nicaea (before continuing to Jerusalem).
1095
 
 
Countess Theresa of Portugal
Theresa Countess of
Portugal
.

1095
 
 
King Eric I,   the Good
Eric Sveynsson was crowned King of
Denmark.


1094
 
 
King Peter I of Aragón
Peter inherited both crowns;
Aragón
and
Pamplona.
1094
 
 
King Peter I of Pamplona
Peter inherited both crowns;
Pamplona
and
Aragón.
1094
 
 
King Donald III, the Fair
Donald the Fair King of
Scotland
for a second period.

1094
 
 
King Duncan II
Duncan II King of
Scotland
.
1093
 
 
King Donald III, the Fair
Donald the Fair King of
Scotland


1093
 
 
Count Robert II
Robert II was going to play an important role in taking the ancient city of Antioch and later Jerusalem during the 1st Crusade. Historians later nicknamed him as Robert The Jerusalemite.
1093
 
 
King Magnus III,   Barefoot
Magnus Olafsson co-ruled
Norway
the first few years with his cousin Haakon Magnusson
1091
 
 
Count Floris II
Also known as Floris the fat; he was the first ruler in the County of
Holland
(parts of former Frisia) and reigned from 1091 to 1121.
1087
 
 
Duke Robert Curthose
William the Conqueror divided his
Anglo-Norman
Kingdom; he appointed Robert, his 1st son, to rule
Normandy
.
1087
 
 
King William II,   Rufus
William the Conqueror divided his
Anglo-Norman
Kingdom; he appointed his 3rd son to rule the
English
Kingdom.
1086
 
 
 
Battle of Sagrajas
The City of Toledo was taken by
Leon
in 1085. An action to which the Almoravid Empire was going to react. The armies battled near Badajoz whilst the 'Sangrar' soaked the grounds. The huge
Almoravid
army was at the end victorious.
1086
 
The Domesday Book
Two books actually in which a survey of
Anglo-Norman
lands was administered.
1086
 
 
King Olaf I,   Hunger
Olaf Sveynsson was crowned King of
Denmark.


1080
 
 
King Knut IV,   the Holy
Knut Sveynsson was crowned King of
Denmark.


1076
 
 
King Harald III,   the Whetstone
Harald Sveynsson was crowned King of
Denmark.


1076
 
 
King Sancho Ramírez
Sancho Ramírez King of
Aragón
became also King of
Pamplona.
At first King Alfonso VI of
León
had appointed a late King's son, though in exchange for western Castilian lands he agreed to the choice of
Pamplonese
nobleman.
1072
 
 
King Alfonso VII
King Sancho of
Castile
died and Alfonso King of
León
returned from exile and became King of
León
and
Castile.
1072
 
 
 
Sancho was victorious
King Sancho of
Castile
had made his brothers flee into exile. As a consequence he actually did succeed in his challenge;
Castile,
León
and
Galicia
were united.
1071
 
 
Count Robert I
Robert, also known as 'the Frisian', the youngest son of Baldwin V became Count of
Flanders
shortly after the Battle of Cassel. And by offering the hand of Bertha of
Holland
to King Philip I, he reestablished the former good relation between
Flanders
and
France
.
1071
 
 
The Battle of Cassel
A
French
army of King Philip I marched to
Flanders
to support Arnulf. Robert's mass of militia with long pikes repulsed the many
French
Knights in the first stage of the battle; this turned out to be rather decisive. Surprisingly though, a switch of noble captives took place during the melee fight (Robert for Richilde). Nevertheless, it was at the end Robert who was victorious.
1071
 
Battle of Pedroso
García, King of
Galicia,
defeated the
Portuguese
army led by Count Nuno Mendes.
1070
 
 
Count Arnulf III
Arnulf, son of Baldwin VI, was appointed as Count of
Flanders
with his uncle Robert as safeguard. The promise of Robert seemed to have no value; he later openly and strongly disagreed with the succession of Arnulf. A battle was unavoidable.
1067
 
 
Count Baldwin VI
Baldwin VI, the eldest son of Baldwin V, successfully repelled attacks by the
Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III during his period of reign.
1067
 
 
King Halsten Stenkilsson
The ferocious Civil War had costed the lives of many barons. Halsten, the son of Stenkil, became King of
Sweden.


1067
 
 
King Olaf III,   Kyrre
Magnus II died; Olaf Kyrre became sole ruler.
1067
 
 
 
Castile annexed disputed area's
Sancho of
Castile
was victorious; the disputed area's were annexed.
1066
 
 
King William I
After securing parts of the south of
England
William marched to London where he was crowned. As a consequence
France
officialy lost its vassal state
Normandy
(which was unofficially lost in 1054).
1066
 
   
The Battle of Hastings
Duke William of
Normandy
(acting as sovereign state, though officially still a vassal state of France) defeats the tiresome army of Harold Godwinson (the last
Anglo-Saxon
King) who had to travel south from Northumbria. Later in history, William was pronounced a legend: King William the Conqueror. An
Anglo-Norman
time period was a fact; the switches between
Anglo-Saxon
Rule and
Anglo-Viking
Rule came to an end.
1066
 
 
King Magnus II,   Haraldsson
Harald Hardrada had died and Magnus Haraldsson (co-ruler with his brother Olaf Kyrre) was crowned King of
Norway;
he had helped the
Welsh
and Mercians in their struggles with
Anglo-Normans
during his reign.
1066
 
The Battle of Stamford Bridge
Harold Godwinson's army consisted for a great part of his personal elite household troops (the HouseCarls, who were full-time royal paid soldiers). They repelled the attacking
Vikings
in Northumbria; the death of Harald Hardrada marks the end of the
Viking
raids in
England
. Furthermore, Harold's brother Tostig, allied with the
Norwegian
-Vikings, died as well in battle.
1066
 
A Swedish Civil War
After the death of King Stenkil,
Sweden
abruptly entered a long lasting Civil War. It started ferociously between Eric and Eric with on both sides many barons involved.

1066
 
The Battle of Fulford
Harald
Hardrada attacks the North of
England
and defeats the Earls Edwin and Morcar.
1066
 
 
King Harold Godwinson
Edward the Confessor died; Harold Godwinson (partly of
Viking
lineage) was chosen by the witan to succeed him as
Anglo-Saxon
King.
1065
 
 
 
War of the 3 Sancho's
A war started because of a dispute about the ownership of border area's between Sancho of
Castile
and Sancho of
Pamplona
(who soon was joined by Sancho of
Aragón).
1065
 
War of the 3 brothers
Sancho of
Castile
, the eldest of the 3 son's of Ferdinand (the late King of
León),
was displeased; he wanted to inherit all of his father's lands. A war was at hand.
1065
 
King García II
Ferdinand had died. García, his youngest son, was crowned King of
Galicia.
1065
 
 
King Alfonso VI, the Valiant
Ferdinand had died. Alfonso, his second son, was crowned King of
León.
1065
 
 
King Sancho II, the Strong
Ferdinand had died. Sancho, his eldest son, was crowned King of
Castile
1063
 
 
King Sancho Ramírez
Sancho Ramírez was crowned King of
Aragón.
1062
 
   
The Battle of Niså
After 15 years of raiding
Denmark
Harald Hardrada still didn't accept Sveyn II as its King and clearly won this final battle in Halland. Though, Sveyn fled and
Denmark
was not officially conquered. Moreover, despite Haralds Victory, they both signed a status quo peace treaty in 1064.
1061
 
 
Count Dirk V of West-Frisia
The first 6 years Dirk ruled under the Guardianship of his mother because he inherited
West-Frisia
as a child.
1061
 
 
Sultan Yusuf ibn Tashfin
Yusuf ibn Tashfin was crowned Sultan of the
Almoravid
Caliphate. Under his command the Almoravid Empire was going to set foot on Al-Andalus (Iberia).
1060
 
 
King Philip I,   the Amorous
With Philip I (the 4th Capetian King) the Royal Demesne slowly started to recover, though partly by devious means.
1060
 
 
King Stenkil
As King of
Sweden
he helped Denmark in its battles with Norway.

1058
 
 
King Malcolm III, Canmore
1057
 
 
King Lulach Tairbith
Macbeth died in the Battle of Lumphanan. His Lords chose Lulach as New King of
Scotland
.
1055
 
King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
A recognized claim of sovereignty of
Wales
; Gruffydd ap Llywelyn united Deheubarth, Powys and Gwynedd.
1054
 
Battle of Mortemer
King Henry I of
France
openly opposed against
Normandy
in 1052 because it became more and more independent due to its strength (and the ties with
England).
The tables had turned indeed; Norman Nobility chose to side with Duke William. This and the fact that the French King had not broken William's defence in Mortemer made him retreat.
1054
 
 
King Sancho IV, of Pamplona
García Sánchez III had died in the Battle of Atapuerca; Sancho of Peñalén was crowned the new King of
Pamplona.
1054
 
 
Battle of Atapuerca
King Ferdinand of
León
and
Castile
initiated this battle because he wanted lands back which he had previously given to King Garcia Sánchez III of
Pamplona
for his aid in the Battle of Tamarón.
1051
 
 
Edward appointed a successor
The childless Edward the Confessor appointed William Duke of
Normandy
as his successor, because he was a grandson of King Aethelred II and Queen Emma. This event was the cause of unrest amongst lords in
England;
in particular Earl Godwine of Wessex whose daughter had married King Edward.
1050
 
 
King Emund the Old
Emund reigned for only a decade. Still though his rule was significant on two issues: religious and border-wise.
1050
 
 
Count Nuno Mendes
Nuno Mendes Count of
Portugal
.
1049
 
 
Count Floris I of West-Frisia
Floris I succeeded his brother as Count of
West-Frisia
in a time of many territorial struggles.
1049
 
   
The Battle of Hedeby
The
Norwegian
King Harald Hardrada burned Hedeby, a major trading place, in southern
Denmark
. Still,
Denmark
remained under control of King Sveyn II Estridsson.
1047
 
 
 
King Harald III,  Hardrada
Kingdoms divided after the sudden death of Magnus; Harald III Sigurdsson (half-brother of Olaf Haraldsson), 1st of the House of Hardrada in
Norway
, was the year before already co-ruler with Magnus the Good. Although the
Norwegian
Viking
Age had already ended with Magnus, Harald was to become 'the last
Viking
'; not only because of his raid in
England
(1066), but because of his continuous actions in
Denmark
.
a Strategy Game:  Civilization VI
Harald Hardrada leads
Norway
.
1047
 
 
 
King Sveyn II,   Estridsson
Kingdoms divided after the sudden death of Magnus; Sveyn II, a descendant of Cnut the Great, was crowned King of
Denmark.
He was going to reign for almost 30 years as 1st ruler of the House of Estridsen.
1047
 
 
Battle of Val-ès-Dunes
Duke William of
Normandy
was attacked by
Norman
rebels whom were commanded by his nephew Guy of Burgundy. King Henry I of
France
came to William's aid because of the fact that the rather strong County of Normandy officially still was a vassal state.
1042
 
 
 
King Magnus I,   the Good
Magnus Olafsson, King of
Norway
, was also crowned King of
Denmark
. The succession was agreed upon in a peace treaty with Harthacnut; it ended the
Viking
-Age in 'Danelands'.
1042
 
 
King Edward;   the Confessor
Edward, son of Aethelred II the Unready and Emma of
Normandy
, was crowned King in the Cathedral of Winchester soon after the death of his half-brother Hartacnut. A revival, though the last of the House of Wessex (the West-Saxons); the last long-ruling
Anglo-Saxon
King.
1040
 
 
King Macbeth mac Findláich
Mac Bethad mac Findláich, mormaer of Moray, became the actual King of
Alba
(Gaelic name for
Scotland
) after the death of King Duncan I.
a Theatre Play:   Shakespeare's MacBeth
1040
 
 
 
King Harthacnut
The
Viking
King Harthacnut of
Denmark
(Cnut III) was offered the
English
Crown after the death of Harold Harefoot. He took along his army to be sure just in case problems would occur. Nevertheless, he ascended to the crown peacefully.
1039
 
 
Count Dirk IV of West-Frisia
Like his father he fought for more land. And again, the armies of the
Holy Roman Empire
came to adjust the situation to their wishes; they ruthlessly destroyed
Rijnsburg.
1037
 
 
King Ferdinand I
The battle of Tamarón was won by Count Ferdinand of
Castile.
He, who was maried with Sacha (sister of the late King of León), marched to the Capital and was crowned King Ferdinand I of
León.
As a consequence, the County of Castile moved back from the Kingdom of
Pamplona
to the Kingdom of
León.
1037
 
 
Battle of Tamarón
King Bermudo III of
León
attacked the armies of Ferdinand Count of
Castile
who was aided by King Garcia Sánchez III of
Pamplona.
King Bermudo died and the battle seemed to have ended soon after.
1035
 
 
Duke William I, the bastard
William the Bastard, Robert's illegitimate son, was crowned Duke of
Normandy
. He, like his father, had to face many struggles therefore his period of reign was sort of a Civil War. Despite all this, he managed to enlarge his lands along the
French
coastline (e.g. Brittany) and allied with
Flanders
by marriage. Moreover, some 30 years later he invaded
England
and became a legend in history as William the Conqueror.
1035
 
 
Count Baldwin V
Count Baldwin of
Flanders
played an important role in international politics. Not only because of his role as host for Queen Emma's Refuge but also because of his mariage with Adela (daughter of
King
Robert II) and their children; two sons (Baldwin & Robert) both turned out to become Counts as well and their daughter Matilda an
Anglo-Norman
Queen Consort.
1035
 
 
 
King Magnus I,  the Good
Magnus Olafsson, an illegitimate son of Olaf Haraldsson, was proclaimed King of
Norway
. During his reign he wished to reunite the 'North Sea Empire'.
1035
 
 
 
King Harthacnut
Harthacnut succeeded his father Cnut the Great as King of
Denmark
.
1035
 
 
 
King Harold I,   Harefoot
Cnut the Great had died.
Against the will of the
English
Church Harold was crowned. though, initially as proxy for his brother Harthacnut and as a consequence extending
Viking
Rule.
1035
 
 
King Ramiro I
Ramiro the first King of
Aragón.
1035
 
 
García Sánchez III,   from Nájera
García Sánchez III King of
Pamplona
.
1034
 
 
King Duncan I, An t-Ilgarach
Donnchadh mac Crìonain was not really contested by others and became King of
Alba
after the death of his grandfather Malcolm the Destroyer.
1032
 
 
Duke Robert I, of Burgundy
Robert the Old was given the title Duke of the vassal-state
Burgundy
to prevent a civil war with his brother Henry King of the
Franks
. Because of lacking real authority over his own vassals, he would turn out to become a robber Baron.
1031
 
 
King Henry I
The 3rd Capetian King was crowned in 'la Cathédrale de Reims'. He ruled the
Franks
during a period of many territorial struggles.
1031
 
 
Taifa of Córdoba
At the end of a long Civil War, in which the Caliphate of
Córdoba
fell apart, the last part surrounding Córdoba changed into a corresponding
Taifa.
1030
 
Battle of Stiklestad
Olaf Haraldsson wanted to reclaim the
Norwegian
throne, though was defeated by a peasant army loyal to the
Viking
King Cnut the Great (King of
England
,
Denmark
&
Norway
). Still though a turning point; the Norwegian Viking Age somehow diminished.
1029
 
 
Count Ferdinand
At the age of approximately 14 Ferdinand was named Count of
Castile
by his father who remained ruler over Castile as King of
Pamplona.
1029
 
Castile annexed by Pamplona
King Sancho III of
Pamplona
claimed, conquered and/or annexed
Castile
based on dynastic rights.
1028
 
 
Count Mendo Nunes
Mendo Nunes Count of
Portugal
.
1028
 
 
King Cnut,   the Great
Norway
was taken by the
Viking
Cnut the Great, King of
Denmark
and
England
, without any real resistance; Olaf Haraldsson was dethroned and fled with his family.
a Strategy Game:  Civilization II
Cnut II (aka Cnut The Great) leads the
Vikings
.
1028
 
 
King Bermudo III
King Bermudo III of
León
was a minor when he ascended to the throne. At the age of 14 he had serious struggles with nobles in the east; in 1034 with King Sancho II of
Pamplona
and in '37 with Count Ferdinand I of
Castile
who was maried with Bermudo's sister.
1027
 
 
Duke Robert I
Robert the Magnificent became Duke of
Normandy
after the death, with unclear conditions though, of his brother Richard III. Robert's reign was unstable and not really accepted by many Barons.
1026
 
 
Duke Richard III
Richard, the eldest son of Richard II of
Normandy
, inherited the Norman Duchy. He repulsed an attack on the city of Falaise by his discontented brother Robert.
1026
 
 
 
Battle of Helgeå
A naval battle between an
Anglo-Danish
fleet, led by Cnut the Great, and a combined fleet of
Swedes
(Anund Jacob) and
Norwegians
(Olaf Haraldsson).
1023
 
 
Taifa of Sevilla
The
Taifa
of Sevilla came to existence in 1023 (a part of the Caliphate of
Córdoba).
1022
 
 
King Anund Jacob
Jacob, son of Olof Skötkonung, was selected by the
Swedish
Alþing and named Anund.
1018
 
Battle of 'Vlaardingen'
The
Holy Roman Empire
unsuccessfully attacked the rebellious
West-Frisia
ns. The first breakthrough for citizens in becoming independent and working towards an autonomous
Holland
.
1018
 
 
Battle of Carham
Malcolm the Destroyer defeated an
Anglo-Viking
army in Carham at the river Tweed (
Northumbria)
and hence extended Scottish rule; Lothian became
Scottish
at the time.
1018
 
 
 
King Cnut II, the Great
Cnut's brother, Harald II, died; He, King of
England
, succeeded to the throne with only minor resistance involved in
Denmark
.
1018
 
 
Taifa of St. Maria do Algarve
The
Taifa
of Santa Maria do Algarve came to existence in 1018 (a part of the Caliphate of
Córdoba).
1017
 
 
Count García Sánchez
García Sánchez Count of
Castile
was during childhood replaced by Urraca.
1016
 
   
King Cnut II, the Great
The
Viking
Cnut, son of Sveyn Forkbeard, took
England
but the South. Though, became King of all
England
when Edmund Ironside died.
1016
 
 
King Edmund Ironside
At the time when Aethelred II died Edmund was his oldest heir in lineage. He replaced his father as King of
England
valiantly, though, half a year later he died as well.
1015
 
 
 
King Olaf II, Haraldsson
Olaf, son of Harald Grenske, worked on the recognition of the
Norwegian
identity, also emphasizing on its natural beauty. He was canonized at Nidaros as Saint Olaf about two years after his death.
1015
 
 
Count Nuno Alvites
Nuno Alvites Count of
Portugal
.
1014
 
Battle of Clontarf
High King Brian Boru died. Though, because his army was victorious, this battle is considered a turning point in
Ireland
;
Viking
control started to diminish.
1014
 
 
King Aethelred II the Unready
The second time of Aethelred II's rule; he returned to
England
after Sveyn's death. Altogether his period of reign was long; the 1st period started in 978.
1014
 
 
 
King Harald II,  Sveynson
Harald, the youngest son of Sveyn Forkbeard's first marriage, became King of
Denmark
after the death of his father.
1013
 
   
King Sveyn Forkbeard
The
Viking
Sveyn Forkbeard (already King of
Denmark
and
Norway
) and his ally Thorkell the Tall had invaded
England
more often. Though, on this occasion Aethelred II fled to
Normandy
; subsequently (the first)
Anglo-Viking
Rule in
England
was a fact.
1013
 
 
Taifa of Zaragoza
The
Taifa
of Zaragoza came to existence in 1013 (a part of the Caliphate of
Córdoba).
1010
 
 
Taifa of Toledo
The
Taifa
of Toledo was one of the first in which the Caliphate of
Córdoba
was going to be divided.
1010
 
 
Taifa of Valencia
The
Taifa
of Valencia was one of the first in which the Caliphate of
Córdoba
was going to be divided.
1009
 
 
Taifa of Badajoz
The
Taifa
of Badajoz was the first in which the Caliphate of
Córdoba
was going to fall into apart.
1009
 
Fitna of Al-Andalus
A civil war had started in the Caliphate of
Córdoba
; in a time span of two decades it was going to be divided in Taifas.
1008
 
 
Count Alvito Nunes
Alvito Nunes Count of
Portugal
.
1008
 
Finnish repelled Thorkell
Thorkell the Tall attacked the region of southern
Finland
. The King-to-be of
Norway
, Olaf Haraldsson, was thenadays one of Thorkell's
viking
warriors. Finnish tribesman repelled the attacking
Norsemen
.
1006
 
A Scottish attack repulsed
Uhtred of Bebbanburgh (
Bamburgh)
repelled a
Scottish
attack on
Durham
led by Malcolm II. therefore he was given the title Aeldorman of
Northumbria
by Aethelred II the Unready.
1005
 
 
Count Dirk III of West-Frisia
He ruled
West-Frisia
until 1039 at the time a vassal state of the
Holy Roman Empire
.
1005
 
 
King Malcolm II, Forranach
Máel Coluim Mac Cináeda was going to be High King of the
Scots
for a period of almost 30 years.
1004
 
 
Sancho Garcés III,   the Great
Sancho Garcés III Count of
Aragón.
1004
 
 
Sancho Garcés III,   the Great
Sancho Garcés III King of
Pamplona
.
1002
 
St. Brice's Day massacre
King Aethelred II the Unready ordered all
Vikings
in
England
to be slain.
1000
 
 
 
King Sveyn Forkbeard
Norway
was partitioned and came again, though partly, under control of the
Danish
Viking
Sveyn Forkbeard.
1000
 
Battle of Svolder
Olaf Tryggvason, the King of
Norway
, was defeated in the naval Battle of Svolder (sea of Øresund) by the
Danish
Viking
King Sveyn Forkbeard.
1000
 
 
 
Battle of Cervera
The
Córdoba
armies, led by Āmir al-Manṣūr the Great, attacked the northern nations of the Iberian peninsula (
Castile
in particular) and was victorious, although losses were huge, in the Battle of Cervera.
999
 
 
King Alfonso V,   the Noble
King Alfonso V of
León
was guarded and tutored as a child by Menedo González, Count of
Portugal,
until 1008.
997
 
 
Count Menendo González
Menendo González Count of
Portugal
.
996
 
 
King Robert II, the Pious
Robert, second of the House of Capet, co-ruled the
Franks
the first ten years together with his father Hugh Capet. From 1007 onwards he took on his eldest son Hugh-Magnus as his co-ruler. It didn't really work out well, because Hugh-Magnus, and both his other sons, turned against him.
996
 
 
Duke Richard II, the Good
During his period of reign as Duke Richard of
Normandy
, he strengthened the bond with Brittany by means of two marriages. And, although King Aethelred II of
England
had attacked Contentin (unsuccessfully though), he improved their relation as well; again by means of marriage (his sister Emma with King Aethelred II).
995
 
 
 
King Olaf Tryggvason
Olaf Tryggvason, an
Irish
Viking
, invaded Norway and was given the oath of allegiance of all Jarls. He was accepted as the new King of
Norway
whilst the ruling
Viking
Sveyn Forkbeard was engaged elsewhere.
995
 
 
 
King Olaf Skötkonung
The son of Eric the Victorious combined götaland (land of Geats) with Svealand (land of Swedes) and hence was the first King of
Sweden
; a turning point concerning
Swedish
participation in
Viking
raids elsewhere.
995
 
 
Count Sancho García
Sancho García, of the Good Laws, Count of
Castile
.
994
 
 
Count García Sánchez II
García Sánchez II Count of
Aragón.
994
 
 
King García Sánchez II
García Sánchez II King of
Pamplona
.
991
 
Battle of Maldon
Another
Viking
invasion in
Essex
(where the East-Saxons resided); Aethelred II the Unready had to pay tribute (Danegeld).
990
 
Códice de Roda
A written document about
Pamplonese
history.

Exact year concerning the (finishing of the) writing is unknown.
987
 
 
Count Baldwin IV
Baldwin (Flemish; Boudewijn) the Bearded ruled
Flanders
for almost half a century. His mother Rozala of
Italy
acted as regent during his childhood.
987
 
 
King Hugh Capet
The King of
West-Frankia,
Louis V, had died suddenly. Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks and Count of Paris, suggested his son Hugh Capet as successor; and, indeed he was selected. He is now looked at as the founder of the House of Capet (which would last in
France
for centuries).
986
 
 
 
King Sveyn Forkbeard
Sveyn, son of the famous
Viking
King Harald Bluetooth, was a brutal ruler. When he violently had taken the
Danish
throne, he consequently became also King of
Norway.
986
 
 
 
King Sveyn Forkbeard
Sveyn, son of the famous
Viking
King Harald Bluetooth, was a brutal ruler. After victoriously having campaigned against his own father, he ascended the throne of
Denmark.
984
 
 
King Bermudo II,   the Gouty
King Bermudo II of
León
was going to rule until his death in 999.
978
 
 
King Aethelred II the Unready
The first period of reign by Aethelred II in Anglo-Saxon
England.
.

976
 
Caliph Hisham II
Hisham received the title of Caliph of
Córdoba
as a child. Therefore the realm was ruled by the regent Almanzor (al-Manṣūr ibn Aamir) and it was he who made it grow into its largest extent.
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