western & northern
1328
1307
1306
1305
1303
1300
1299
1297
1296
1295
1294
1292
1291
1290
1289
1287
1286
1285
1280
1279
1275
1272
1270
1263
1260
1256
1254
1251
1250
1249
1248
1247
1244
1243
1242
1241
1240
1234
1230
1227
1226
1223
1222
1220
1217
1216
1215
1214
1213
1210
1208
1206
1205
1204
1203
1202
1200
1199
1195
1194
1191
1190
1189
1185
1184
1180
1174
1173
1171
1170
1169
1168
1165
1164
1160
1157
1154
1153
1150
1146
1144
1140
1139
1137
1136
1135
1134
1132
1130
1129
1128
1127
1124
1121
1120
1119
1111
1110
1108
1107
1106
1104
1103
1100
1097
1096
1094
1093
1091
1090
1087
1086
1080
1071
1070
1067
1066
1062
1061
1060
1058
1057
1055
1051
1050
1049
1047
1042
1040
1039
1035
1034
1032
1031
1030
1028
1027
1026
1022
1020
1018
1016
1015
1014
1013
1010
1008
1006
1005
1002
1000
996
995
991
987
986
978
1328
 
1st WAR of Scottish independence ended
The WAR ended; the
Scots
were victorious.
1307 ;  King   Edward II, Carnarvon
Edward II, Carnarvon.......
1307
 
Edward II, Carnarvon
Edward II, Carnarvon.......
1306 ;  King   Robert I, the Buce
Robert the Bruce.......
1306
 
Robert I, the Bruce
Robert the Bruce.......
1305
 
Franco-Flemish WAR ended
King Philip IV of
France
was victorious and
Flanders
had to agree to concede e.g. Lille, Douai and Béthune. On the other hand
Flanders
officialy gained its souverain status. Wereas then a gain from the
Flemish
point of view: remained independent.
1303
 
Gascony WAR ended
The
English
fought unsuccessfully to regain
Gascony
. Though, despite the
French
victory it became an
English
Duchy again in 1303; mainly because Edward Longshanks agreed to submit to Philip IV as his feudal lord.
1301 ;  Guardian   John de Soules
Guardian John de Soules ruled the
Scots
.
1299
 
Haakon V,   Magnusson
During his reign the 'Akershus Festning' was built and hence moving royal functions from Bergen to Oslo.
1298 ;  Guardian   John III Comyn
Guardian John Comyn ruled the
Scots
.
1297
 
 ⚔ 
Franco - Flemish WAR
Start of
Flanders
War of Liberation.
Flanders
was economically thriving for many decades because of its position on the crossroads of trade routes. Because of its wealth and strength, in which it was compared with
France
at least equal, it had an independent charisma.
1297 ;  Guardian   William Wallace
Guardian William Wallace ruled the
Scots
.
1296
 
 ⚔ 
1st WAR of Scottish independence
The
Scots
fought for freedom not accepting Edward Longshanks as Overlord. After the abdication of King John Balliol
Scotland
was ruled by:
1297 - 1298 ;   Guardian  William Wallace
1298 - 1303 ;   Guardian  John Comyn
1301 - 1304 ;   Guardian  John de Soules
1296
 
WAR of the Outlaws ended
1296 ;  Count   John I
John was brought up in
England
because of his betrothal to Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward Longshanks.
John was brought up in
England
because of his betrothal to Elizabeth, daughter of King Edward Longshanks.
1296
 
Conspiracy against Floris V
It was
Edward Longshanks
and
Guy of Dampierre
who conspired to have
Floris V
kidnapped in 'het Muiderslot' by his own vassals. Peasants came to free him when he was to be taken to
England
, though it ended worse;
Floris V
was murdered.
1296
 
 ⚔ 
England invaded Scotland
King Edward Longshanks invaded
Scotland
because of the Auld Alliance that the
Scots
had signed with
France
.
1295
 
Auld Alliance
A declaratian of (old) Alliance:
Scotland
&
France
.
At this time not only the
Scottish
people but also the major Lords and even King John Balliol openly opposed the
English
Lordship over
Scotland
.
1294
 
 ⚔ 
Gascony WAR
The
English
were determined to regain
Gascony
.
1292
 
Great Cause ended
The Great Cause ended with a rather unwanted event for the
Scots
. The King of
England
, Edward Longshanks, took the chance and proclaimed Lordship over
Scotland
when he got Bruce and Balliol on his side.
1292 ;  King   John Balliol
John Balliol was chosen as King of the
Scots
. Though, as a vassal-state of
England
with which the
Scottish
people could not agree.
1292
 
John Balliol
John Balliol was chosen as King of the
Scots
. Though, as a vassal-state of
England
with which the
Scottish
people could not agree.
1291
 
 ⚔ 
Great Cause
Margaret, Queen of
Scotland
and daughter of
Norway
, died on Orkney. Lord Robert the Bruce and Lord John Balliol were the two main pretenders amongst several others (e.g. Floris V of
Holland
).
1290
 
Birger
Birger King of
Sweden
.
1289
 
 ⚔ 
WAR of the Outlaws
Danish
against
Danish
outlaws &
Norway
.
1287
 
St. Lucia's flood
Many people didn't survive this natural disaster.
1286 ;  Queen   Margaret
Margaret Maid of
Norway
, a 3 year old child at the time, inherited the title Queen of
Scots
.
1286
 
Margaret
Margaret Maid of
Norway
, a 3 year old child at the time, inherited the title Queen of
Scots
.
1286
 
Eric VI,   Menved
He had financial problems, mainly because of his own doings.
1285 ;  King   Philip IV,   the Fair
Also known as 'le Roi de fer'; due to his character his reign had bureaucratic aspects.
1285
 
Philip IV,   the Fair
Also known as 'le Roi de fer'; due to his character his reign had bureaucratic aspects.
1280
 
Eric II,   Priest-Hater
Eric Magnusson's main issue was the 'War of the Outlaws'.
1279 ;  King   Denis of Portugal
King Denis of
Portugal
.
1279
 
Denis of Portugal
King Denis of
Portugal
.
1275
 
Magnus III
King Magnus III of
Sweden
.
1272 ;  King   Edward I,   Longshanks
Edward I Longshanks reformed royal administration and common law. Because of his unwanted actions in
Scotland
he was also called the Hammer of the
Scots
.
1272
 
Edward I,   Longshanks
Edward I Longshanks reformed royal administration and common law. Because of his unwanted actions in
Scotland
he was also called the Hammer of the
Scots
.
1270 ;  King   Philip III,   the bold
1270
 
Philip III,   the bold
*** more later ***
1263
 
Magnus VI,   the Law-Mender
Magnus Haakonsson worked not only on an improvement of the
Norwegian
Law-code, but on better international relations as well. In particular with
England
and
Sweden
.
1263
 
 ⚔ 
Battle of Largs
Although this major battle ended indecisive, the
Scots
got control of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man (Peace Treaty of Perth; 1266. Signed by Alexander III of
Scotland
and Magnus VI of
Norway
).
1263
 
Magnus VI,   the Law-Mender
Magnus Haakonsson worked not only on an improvement of the
Norwegian
Law-code, but on better international relations as well. In particular with
England
and
Sweden
.
1256 ;  Count   Floris V
He inherited the title at the age of two, though was faithfully guarded by Otto II of Guelders. Floris V became a
Dutch
hero in latter years mainly because he did not suppress the peasants at the time; therefore, he is also known as The God of the Commoners.
1256
 
Floris V
He inherited the title at the age of two, though was faithfully guarded by Otto II of Guelders. Floris V became a
Dutch
hero in latter years mainly because he did not suppress the peasants at the time; therefore, he is also known as The God of the Commoners.
1254
 
War of Flemish Succession ended
The series of conflicts ended when King Louis IX of
France
intervened for the second time.
1251 ;  Count   Guy
Whilst the War of Succession was still raging on it was Guy of Dampierre who was pronounced Count.
1251
 
Guy of Dampierre
Whilst the War of Succession was still raging on it was Guy of Dampierre who was pronounced Count.
1250
 
Valdemar
Valdemar King of
Sweden
.
1249 ;  King   Alexander III
Ruled the
Scots
during a war with the
Norwegians
.
1249
 
Alexander III
Ruled the
Scots
during a war with the
Norwegians
.
1248 ;  King   Alfonso III of Portugal
Alfonso III King of
Portugal
.
1248
 
Alfonso III of Portugal
Alfonso III King of
Portugal
.
1247 ;  Count   William I
William, actually William II of Dampiere, was proclaimed Count of
Flanders
when King Louis IX consented;
Flanders
was at the time a vassal-state of
France
.
1247
 
William I
William, actually William II of Dampiere, was proclaimed Count of
Flanders
when King Louis IX consented;
Flanders
was at the time a vassal-state of
France
.
1244
 
 ⚔ 
War of Flemish Succession
A series of conflicts about who was to rule
Flanders
. The descendants of both Margaret's 1st and 2nd marriage claimed legal inheritance.
1244 ;  Countess   Margaret II
Margaret of Constantinople and her sister Joan were raised in Paris with King Philip II as ward. Because of family-related reasons she was called Margaret the Black.
1244
 
Margaret II
Margaret of Constantinople and her sister Joan were raised in Paris with King Philip II as ward. Because of family-related reasons she was called Margaret the Black.
1243
 
Saintonge WAR ended
1242
 
 ⚔ 
Saintonge WAR
Whilst the
Angevin
empire didn't exist anymore, there were still battles to be fought. In this case because vassals in Poitou wouldn't agree with the succession of Louis' brother.
1241
 
'Code of Jutland'
A civil code to imply unity of governmental laws throughout
Denmark
.
1240
 
Norwegian Civil War
In a way a, for more than a century lasting, Class Struggle; a war concerning pretenders for the throne: legitimate-or-not-royals, aristocrats with allies, peasants with their leaders (the Birkebeiners) and prominent religious believers with their followers (the Baglers).
1234 ;  Count   William II
Also known as 'Willem van Henegouwen'; founder of the 'Binnenhof' (nowadays the residence of the
Dutch
Government).
1234
 
William II
Also known as 'Willem van Henegouwen'; founder of the 'Binnenhof' (nowadays the residence of the
Dutch
Government).
1226 ;  King   Saint Louis IX
The reformer of Royal Justice and hence a notable Capetian Ruler.
1226
 
Saint Louis IX
The reformer of Royal Justice and hence a notable Capetian Ruler.
1223 ;  King   Louis VIII,   the Lion
He brought the County of Toulouse under
French
rule.
1223
 
Louis VIII,   the Lion
He brought the County of Toulouse under
French
rule.
1223 ;  King   Sancho II of Portugal
King Sancho II of
Portugal
.
1223
 
Sancho II of Portugal
King Sancho II of
Portugal
.
1222 ;  Count   Floris IV
Had to face struggles to the east of
Holland
; in Utrecht, 'Drenthe' and North of Bremen (Germany).
1222
 
Floris IV
Had to face struggles to the east of
Holland
; in Utrecht, 'Drenthe' and North of Bremen (Germany).
1222
 
Eric XI, the Lisp & Lame
King Eric XI of
Sweden
.
1217
 
Haakon IV,   the Old
His rule endured 46 years. Haakon Haakonsson was responsible for a turning point in
Norwegian
history; his army defeated Skule Bardsson (who was regent of
Norway
during Haakon's childhood) and hence the Civil War came to an end.
1217
 
1st Baron's WAR ended
The changed royal situation in
England
made several Baron's turn towards Henry III. Moreover, they jointly attacked their former ally. The thenadays yet to become King of
France
Louis VIII had to withdraw and accept some losses. Despite all this, later that year the 1st Baron's war ended with a Status Quo Ante Bellum (Kingston-upon-Thames).
1216 ;  King   Henry III of Winchester
When John Lackland had died, Henry III of Winchester was crowned King of
England
. Despite the fact that he, like his predecessors, was also a member of the House of Plantagenet this event is marked as the end of the
Angevin
Period.
1216
 
Henry III of Winchester
When John Lackland had died, Henry III of Winchester was crowned King of
England
. Despite the fact that he, like his predecessors, was also a member of the House of Plantagenet this event is marked as the end of the
Angevin
Period.
1215
 
Magna Carta Libertatum
An
Angevin
document put down by the Archbishop of Canterbury (by order of King John Lackland). Rewritten it formed a part of the peace treaty in 1217 with which the 1st Barons' War formally came to an end.
1215
 
 ⚔ 
1st Baron's WAR
Rebellious landowners in
England
supported by Prince Louis of
France
(the thenadays future King) fought against
Angevin
-Allied-Forces lead by John Lackland.
1214 ;  King   Alexander II
His reign would endure 35 years.
1214
 
Alexander II
His reign would endure 35 years.
1214
 
 
Anglo-French WAR ended
The war ended with the decisive Battle of Bouvines in the County of
Flanders
.
1213
 
 ⚔ 
Anglo-French WAR
John Lackland tried to regain lost continental territories and attacked
Normandy
(at the time a
French
province).
1208
 
Eric X, the survivor
Eric X King of
Sweden
.
1206 ;  Count   William I
The Loon War ended and a peace agreement was signed. Although there was a division in lands it was William I who afterwards was called Count of
Holland
; he, son of Floris III and the
Scottish
noble lady Ada of Huntingdon, was in a way victorious. During his reign (almost 20 years) many swamps were turned into polders flourishing
Dutch
economy.
1206
 
William I
The Loon War ended and a peace agreement was signed. Although there was a division in lands it was William I who afterwards was called Count of
Holland
; he, son of Floris III and the
Scottish
noble lady Ada of Huntingdon, was in a way victorious. During his reign (almost 20 years) many swamps were turned into polders flourishing
Dutch
economy.
1206
 
Loon WAR ends
William's
North-Hollanders
came up with a rigorous tactic: the Kennemers broke dykes, flooded a large area and consequently bided time. Later, after the arrival of a big army of
Zeelanders
and
South-Hollanders
who joined William, the tide turned again. Now it was Louis' turn to flee, though he was chased and defeated.
Mendicant Orders
A religious way of life.
1205 ;  Countess   Joan
Joan achieved major changes both social and economic; e.g. she helped setting up the Mendicant Orders, ordered canals to be built and improved wool-trade with
England
. Joan co-reigned with husbands until 1244. She was succeeded by her sister Margaret.
Joan achieved major changes both social and economic; e.g. she helped setting up the Mendicant Orders, ordered canals to be built and improved wool-trade with
England
. Joan co-reigned with husbands until 1244. She was succeeded by her sister Margaret.
1204
 
 
Normandy Campaigns ended
House of Plantagenet versus House of Capet.

After the successful siege of Château Gaillard by the
French
, John Lackland lost continental
Angevin
territories.
Normandy
became a
French
province and Philip II continued to take Maine,
Anjou
& Poitou.
1203
 
 ⚔ 
Loon WAR
War of succession in the County of
Holland
between William, brother of the late Count Dirk VII, and Ada who had claimed to be Countess. William besieged Leiden, conquered it and captured Ada. Louis van Loon, Ada's husband, reacted by attacking
Holland
with a massive army (many Allies); William had to flee.
1203 ;  Countess   Ada
Ada, daughter of Dirk VII, claimed the County of
Holland
immediately after the death of her father. Therefore she had to marry; she did so at the age of 15 to Louis van Loon.
Ada, daughter of Dirk VII, claimed the County of
Holland
immediately after the death of her father. Therefore she had to marry; she did so at the age of 15 to Louis van Loon.
1202
 
Valdemar II,   Victorious
Again a long ruler of the House of Estridsen (39 years); he introduced the 'Code of Jutland'.
1202
 
 ⚔ 
Normandy Campaigns
House of Plantagenet versus House of Capet.
The
Angevin
Empire had become more and more
English
over the past decades thenadays and when King John succeeded King Richard, it was not only King Philip II of
France
who was not pleased. He started
Normandy
Campaigns with the help of Brittany, Maine and
Anjou
. Though, King John managed to be victorious at Mirebeau.
1199 ;  King   John Lackland
Angevin
King John ruled, as the 3rd of the House of Plantagenet, in difficult times and was not always successful, partly because of his personality. His period of reign was marked as 'the Fall of the
Angevin
Empire'.
1199
 
John Lackland
Angevin
King John ruled, as the 3rd of the House of Plantagenet, in difficult times and was not always successful, partly because of his personality. His period of reign was marked as 'the Fall of the
Angevin
Empire'.
1195
 
Sverker II
King Sverker II of
Sweden
.
1194 ;  Count   Baldwin IX
Baldwin fought to regain
Flemish
territory given away by a predecessor (Count Philip). Though, he became a legend in history as Baldwin I, the Latin Emperor, because of his actions in the 4th crusade; in 1204 he was crowned in the Hagia Sophia.
1194
 
Baldwin IX
Baldwin fought to regain
Flemish
territory given away by a predecessor (Count Philip). Though, he became a legend in history as Baldwin I, the Latin Emperor, because of his actions in the 4th crusade; in 1204 he was crowned in the Hagia Sophia.
1191 ;  Countess   Margaret I
At first her claim to be Countess of
Flanders
was not acknowledged by Ghent and King Philip II of
France
. And although her period of reign was rather short, she can be looked at as the first woman to have ruled
Flanders
. She co-ruled with her husband Baldwin VIII, who was actually Baldwin V of Hainaut.
1191
 
Margaret I
At first her claim to be Countess of
Flanders
was not acknowledged by Ghent and King Philip II of
France
. And although her period of reign was rather short, she can be looked at as the first woman to have ruled
Flanders
. She co-ruled with her husband Baldwin VIII, who was actually Baldwin V of Hainaut.
1190 ;  Count   Dirk VII
Dirk was, like his father before him, on good terms with the
Holy Roman Emperor
.
1190
 
Dirk VII
Dirk VII of
Holland
was, like his father before him, on good terms with the
Holy Roman Emperor
.
1189 ;  King   Richard the Lionheart
A warrior ruler, the 2nd of the House of Plantagenet, who spent his life mainly abroad.
1189
 
Richard, the Lionheart
A warrior ruler, the 2nd of the House of Plantagenet, who spent his life mainly abroad.
1185 ;  King   Sancho I of Portugal
King Sancho the Populator of
Portugal
.
1185
 
Sancho I of Portugal
King Sancho the Populator of
Portugal
.
1184
 
Sverre I,  Sigurdsson
A prominent leader of the Birkebeiners.
1180 ;  King   Philip II,   Dieudonné
The by god-given ruler also known as Philip Augustus; the 7th of the House of Capet. He was going to be successful in the Plantagenet - Capetian rivalry during his rule.
1180
 
Philip II,   Dieudonné
The by god-given ruler also known as Philip Augustus; the 7th of the House of Capet. He was going to be successful in the Plantagenet - Capetian rivalry during his rule.
1174
 
Angevin Empire Pinnacle
In a way the ultimate climax of the
Angevin
Empire on the continent and on the isles; sort of a commonwealth which was formed mainly by marriage and inheritance. The name was derived from
Anjou
in which 'the House of Plantagenet' had its origin.
1174
 
The Revolt ends
Henry II successfully repelled all his opponents whom all submitted to him. His wife (Eleanor, the Duchess of
Aquitaine
) and his 3 sons even choose to reconcile. Moreover, William the Lion was captured at the Battle of Alnwick and
Scotland
became a vassal state of the
Angevin
Empire; the Peace Treaty was signed in Falaise.
1173
 
 ⚔ 
The Revolt
Angevin
Normandy
was attacked from all sides; the Counts of
Flanders
and Boulogne from the east, Henry's wife Eleanor of
Aquitaine
and their son young Henry (allied with the
French
King) from the south and the Duke of Brittany from the west. Furthermore, amongst uprisings in
England
itself it was a
Scottish
Army led by William the Lion who attacked
England
from the North.
1173
 
Canute I
His reign was marked by the importance of (royal or not) written documents.
1171
 
Ireland conquered
Gaelic
Ireland
was conquered; the
Angevin
Empire established Lordship over
Ireland
.
1170
 
Thomas Becket assassinated
Thomas Becket (allied with Louis VII of
France
) was assassinated. Historians believe that orders for the act might have been given by Henry II because of an ongoing disagreement about religious matters.
1169
 
 ⚔ 
Angevin invasion in Ireland
Gaelic
Ireland
was invaded from the South-East.
1168 ;  Count   Philip I
Whilst
Flanders
grew to its largest extent, Philip (of Alsace) was focused on international affairs; he acted as a mediator, though was not successful on a few occasions. 'De Gravesteen' in Ghent was ordered to be built by Philip in around 1180.
1168
 
Philip I
Whilst
Flanders
grew to its largest extent, Philip (of Alsace) was focused on international affairs; he acted as a mediator, though was not successful on a few occasions. 'De Gravesteen' in Ghent was ordered to be built by Philip in around 1180.
1165 ;  King   William I, the Lion
The Rough King ruled the
Scots
for half a century.
1165
 
William I,   the Lion
The rough King ruled the
Scots
for half a century.
1164
 
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Renfrew
Somerled is repelled; the ruler of the
Scottish
Isles attacked a Royal
Scottish
Army (Malcolm IV).
1157 ;  Count   Floris III
During his reign the County of
Holland
was still a vassal of the
Holy Roman Empire
ruled by Frederick Barbarossa thenadays. Though, this relation was on good terms; for his deeds Floris gained an Emperial title.
1157
 
Floris III
During his reign the County of
Holland
was still a vassal of the
Holy Roman Empire
ruled by Frederick Barbarossa thenadays. Despite the past, this relation was on good terms during his reign. Therefor Floris gained an Emperial title.
1157
 
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Grathe Heath
The civil war came to an end. A tripartition was agreed upon: Jutland (Valdemar I), Scania (Sweyn III) and Zealand & Funen (Canute V). Unexpectedly, it all ended with a little turn; the treacherous Sweyn killed Canute (at the Bloodfeast of Roskilde) and Valdemar somehow fled. Later that year, at this battle of Grathe Heath Sweyn was slain.
1154 ;  King   Henry II,   Curtmantle
Duke of
Anjou
,
Normandy
and
Aquitaine
.
In
England
the first ruler of the House of Plantaganet; his period of reign was marked as 'the Rise of the
Angevin
Empire'.
1154
 
Henry II,   Curtmantle
In
England
the first ruler of the House of Plantaganet; his period of reign was marked as 'the Rise of the
Angevin
Empire'.
1153
 
The Anarchy ended
In a way the end of the
Anglo-Norman Age
(which started with the victory of William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings).
1153 ;  King   Malcolm IV Virgo
Malcolm the Maiden King of
Scotland
.
1153
 
Malcolm IV, Virgo
Malcolm the Maiden King of
Scotland
.
1146
 
Valdemar I,   the Great
During a long period of rule (36 years) he outlived the other pretenders to the throne (an 11 year civil war); his reign marked 'the revival of
Denmark
'
1144
 
Geoffrey Plantaganet
Geoffrey Plantagenet became Duke of
Normandy
; still a vassal state of the
Anglo-Norman
Empire.
1139 ;  King   Alfonso I of Portugal
King Alfonso I of
Portugal
.
1139
 
Alfonso I of Portugal
King Alfonso I of
Portugal
.
1137 ;  King   Louis VII,   the younger
1137
 
Louis VII,   the younger
1137
 
Eleanor,   of Aquitaine
*** more later ***
1136
 
Inge I,   Haraldsson
He and his brothers were led by Guardians during childhood; a rather peaceful period of the already started Civil WAR. Though, when they all approached an adult life, relations got rough. Inge Haraldsson had the
Danish
people on his side because he considered counsel when given.
1135
 
 ⚔ 
The Anarchy
The start of an
Anglo-Norman
Civil WAR which mainly took place in
Normandy
.
1135 ;  King   Stephen of Blois
Stephen of Blois took the
Anglo-Norman
Crown despite the oath to support the Empress Matilda.
1135
 
Stephen of Blois
Stephen of Blois took the
Anglo-Norman
Crown despite the oath to support the Empress Matilda.
1135 ;  Emperor   Alfonso VII of Spain
King Alfonso VII of all
Spain
.
1135
 
Alfonso VII of Spain
King Alfonso VII of all
Spain
.
1134
 
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Fotevik
King Niels of
Denmark
and his son, Magnus the Strong of
Sweden
, were defeated by Eric II in Scania (which at the time belonged to
Denmark
).
1132
 
Sverker I, the Elder
The House of Stenkill had disappeared. The
Swedes
were without a King, although Magnus the Strong was acknowledged but not accepted as King of Götaland. During the absence of the
Danish
Prince Magnus the
Swedes
appointed Sverker as their King.
1130
 
Norwegian Civil War
In a way a, for more than a century lasting, Class Struggle; a war concerning pretenders for the throne: legitimate-or-not-royals, aristocrats with allies, peasants with their leaders (the Birkebeiners) and prominent religious believers with their followers (the Baglers).
1129
 
Geoffrey Plantagenet
Geoffrey of
Anjou
, aka the handsome, founder of the Plantagenet Dynasty was pronounced Count.
1128 ;  Count   Thierry
After the death of William Clito there was only one heir left; Thierry of Alsace (Diederik) became Count of
Flanders
. He, like many Counts at the time, had a crusading history and ruled until he died in 1168.
1128
 
Thierry
After the death of William Clito there was only one heir left; Thierry of Alsace (Diederik) became Count of
Flanders
. He, like many Counts at the time, had a crusading history and ruled until he died in 1168.
1127 ;  Count   William Clito
At the hand of King Louis of
France
William Clito was accepted by
Flemish
Barons as their new Count. Though, loyalty turned towards Thierry of Alsace. Despite this, William was victorious in the Battle of Axspoele. Onwards he went, though was fatally wounded when he besieged Aalst. He was burried in the Abbey of St. Bertin.
1127
 
William Clito
At the hand of King Louis of
France
William Clito was accepted by
Flemish
Barons as their new Count. Though, loyalty turned towards Thierry of Alsace. Despite this, William was victorious in the Battle of Axspoele. Onwards he went, though was fatally wounded when he besieged Aalst. He was burried in the Abbey of St. Bertin.
1124 ;  King   David I mac Maíl Choluim
The Prince of Cumbrians marked his rule with a Davidian Revolution; introducing e.g. a feudal system.
1124
 
David I mac Maíl Choluim
The Prince of Cumbrians marked his rule with a Davidian Revolution; introducing e.g. a feudal system.
1121 ;  Count   Dirk VI
Also called Floris the Black.
1121
 
Dirk VI
Also called Floris the Black.
1119 ;  Count   Charles the Good
Charles got the title because he was good to the people he represented; e.g. he helped in 1125 those who had a food shortage. Much later, he was beautified by the pope.
1119
 
Charles the Good
Charles got the title because he was good to the people he represented; e.g. he helped in 1125 those who had a food shortage. Much later, he was beautified by the pope.
1111 ;  Count   Baldwin VII
He fought at the side of King Louis the Fighter of
France
against the
Anglo-Norman
Empire of King Henry I and was fatally wounded in the battle of Bures-en-Bray.
1111
 
Baldwin VII
He fought at the side of King Louis the Fighter of
France
against the
Anglo-Norman
Empire of King Henry I and was fatally wounded in the battle of Bures-en-Bray.
1108 ;  King   Louis VI,   the fighter
Reinforced his power considerably; fought both local robber-barons and the
French
counties under
Anglo-Norman
rule.
1108
 
Louis VI,   the fighter
Reinforced his power considerably; fought both local robber-barons and the
French
counties under
Anglo-Norman
rule.
1107 ;  King   Alexander I, the Fierce
Alexander the Fierce King of
Scotland
....
1107
 
Alexander I, the Fierce
Alexander the Fierce King of
Scotland
....
1106 ;  King   Henry I, Beauclerc
As the victor of the Battle of Tinchebray Henry Beauclerc (the 4th son of William) extended his
Anglo-Norman
Empire with
Normandy
.
1106
 
Henry I, Beauclerc
As the victor of the Battle of Tinchebray Henry Beauclerc (the 4th son of William) extended his
Anglo-Norman
Empire with
Normandy
.
1106
 
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Tinchebray
Henry I invaded
Normandy
; his dismounted
Anglo-Norman
knights played a decisive role.
The last of 5 brothers who ascended to the throne.
1103
 
Sigurd I,   the Crusader
The reign (27 years) of Sigurd Magnusson is nowadays called a 'golden-age'.
1100 ;  King   Henry I, Beauclerc
Henry Beauclerc (the 4th son of William) seized the
Anglo-Norman
crown shortly after William Rufus died hunting.
1100
 
Henry I
Henry Beauclerc (the 4th son of William) seized the
Anglo-Norman
crown shortly after William Rufus died hunting.
1097 ;  King   Edgar Probus
Edgar the Valiant King of
Scotland
....
1097
 
Edgar Probus
Edgar the Valiant King of
Scotland
....
1096
 
Departure of the 1st Crusade
The departure of participants of the 1st Crusade.
When they arrived in the Levant it all started with besieging Nicaea (before continuing to Jerusalem).
1094 ;  King   Donald III, the Fair
Donald the Fair King of
Scotland
....
1094
 
Donald III, the Fair
Donald the Fair King of
Scotland
....
1094 ;  King   Duncan II
Duncan II King of
Scotland
.
1094
 
Duncan II
Duncan II King of
Scotland
.
1093 ;  King   Donald III, the Fair
Donald the Fair King of
Scotland
....
1093
 
Donald III, the Fair
Donald the Fair King of
Scotland
....
1093 ;  Count   Robert II
Robert II was going to play an important role in taking the ancient city of Antioch and later Jerusalem during the 1st Crusade. Historians later nicknamed him as Robert The Jerusalemite.
1093
 
Robert II
Robert II was going to play an important role in taking the ancient city of Antioch and later Jerusalem during the 1st Crusade. Historians later nicknamed him as Robert The Jerusalemite.
1093
 
Magnus III,   Barefoot
Magnus Olafsson co-ruled
Norway
the first few years with his cousin Haakon Magnusson
1091 ;   Count   Floris II
Also known as Floris the fat; he was the first ruler in the County of
Holland
(parts of former Frisia) and reigned from 1091 to 1121.
1091
 
Floris II
Also known as Floris the fat; he was the first ruler in the County of
Holland
(parts of former Frisia) and reigned from 1091 to 1121.
1087 ;  Duke   Robert Curthose
William the Conqueror divided his
Anglo-Norman
Kingdom; he appointed Robert, his 1st son, to rule
Normandy
.
1087
 
Robert Curthose
William the Conqueror divided his
Anglo-Norman
Kingdom; he appointed Robert, his 1st son, to rule
Normandy
.
1087 ;  King   William II,   Rufus
William the Conqueror divided his
Anglo-Norman
Kingdom; he appointed his 3rd son to rule the
English
Kingdom.
1087
 
William II,   Rufus
William the Conqueror divided his
Anglo-Norman
Kingdom; he appointed his 3rd son to rule the
English
Kingdom.
1086
 
The Domesday Book
Two books actually in which a survey of
Anglo-Norman
lands was administered.
1071 ;  Count   Robert I
Robert, also known as 'the Frisian', the youngest son of Baldwin V became Count of
Flanders
shortly after the Battle of Cassel. And by offering the hand of Bertha of
Holland
to King Philip I, he reestablished the former good relation between
Flanders
and
France
.
1071
 
Robert I
Robert, also known as 'the Frisian', the youngest son of Baldwin V became Count of
Flanders
shortly after the Battle of Cassel. And by offering the hand of Bertha of
Holland
to King Philip I, he reestablished the former good relation between
Flanders
and
France
.
1071
 
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Cassel
A
French
army of King Philip I marched to
Flanders
to support Arnulf. Robert's mass of militia with long pikes repulsed the many
French
Knights in the first stage of the battle; this turned out to be rather decisive. Surprisingly though, a switch of noble captives took place during the melee fight (Robert for Richilde). Nevertheless, it was at the end Robert who was victorious.
1070 ;  Count   Arnulf III
Arnulf, son of Baldwin VI, was appointed as Count of
Flanders
with his uncle Robert as safeguard. The promise of Robert seemed to have no value; he later openly and strongly disagreed with the succession of Arnulf. A battle was unavoidable.
1070
 
Arnulf III
Arnulf, son of Baldwin VI, was appointed as Count of
Flanders
with his uncle Robert as safeguard. The promise of Robert seemed to have no value; he later openly and strongly disagreed with the succession of Arnulf. A battle was unavoidable.
1067 ;  Count   Baldwin VI
Baldwin VI, the eldest son of Baldwin V, successfully repelled attacks by the
Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III during his period of reign.
1067
 
Baldwin VI
Baldwin VI, the eldest son of Baldwin V, successfully repelled attacks by the
Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III during his period of reign.
1067
 
Olaf III,   Kyrre
Magnus II died; Olaf Haraldsson became sole ruler.
1066 ;  King   William I, the Conqueror
After securing parts of the south of
England
William marched to London where he was crowned. As a consequence
France
lost its vassal state
Normandy
.
1066
 
William I
After securing parts of the south of
England
William marched to London where he was crowned. As a consequence
France
lost its vassal state
Normandy
.
1066
 
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Hastings
Duke William of
Normandy
defeats the tiresome army of Harold Godwinson (the last
Anglo-Saxon
King) who had to travel south from Northumbria. Later in history, William was pronounced a legend: King William the Conqueror. An
Anglo-Norman
time period was a fact; the switches between
Anglo-Saxon
Rule and
Anglo-Viking
Rule came to an end.
1066
 
Magnus II,   Haraldsson
Harald Hardrada had died and Magnus Haraldsson (co-ruler with his brother Olaf Kyrre) was crowned King; he had helped the
Welsh
and Mercians in their struggles with
Anglo-Normans
during his reign.
1066
 
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Stamford Bridge
Harold Godwinson's army consisted for a great part of his personal elite household troops (the HouseCarls, who were full-time royal paid soldiers). They repelled the attacking
Vikings
in Northumbria; the death of Harald Hardrada marks the end of the
Viking
raids in
England
. Furthermore, Harold's brother Tostig, allied with the
Norwegian
-Vikings, died as well in battle.
1066
 
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Fulford
Harald Hardrada attacks the North of
England
and defeats the Earls Edwin and Morcar.
1066 ;  King   Harold Godwinson
Edward the Confessor died; Harold Godwinson (partly of
Viking
lineage) was chosen by the witan to succeed him as
Anglo-Saxon
King.
1066
 
Harold Godwinson
Edward the Confessor died; Harold Godwinson (partly of
Viking
lineage) was chosen by the witan to succeed him as
Anglo-Saxon
King.
1062
 
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Niså
After 15 years of raiding
Denmark
Harald Hardrada still didn't accept Sweyn II as its King and clearly won this final battle in Halland. Though, Sweyn fled and
Denmark
was not officially conquered. Moreover, despite Haralds Victory, they both signed a status quo peace treaty in 1064.
1061 ;  Count   Dirk V of West-Frisia
The first 6 years Dirk ruled under the Guardianship of his mother because he inherited
West-Frisia
as a child.
1061
 
Dirk V of West-Frisia
The first 6 years Dirk ruled under the Guardianship of his mother because he inherited
West-Frisia
as a child.
1060 ;  King   Philip I,   the Amorous
With Philip I (the 4th Capetian King) the Royal Demesne slowly started to recover, though partly by devious means.
1060
 
Philip I,   the Amorous
With Philip I (the 4th Capetian King) the Royal Demesne slowly started to recover, though partly by devious means.
1060
 
Stenkil
He was the first King in
Sweden
by election
1058 ;  King   Malcolm III, Canmore
Mal Collum King of
Scotland
....
1058
 
Malcolm III, Canmore
Mal Collum King of
Scotland
....
1057 ;  King   Lulach Tairbith
Macbeth died in the Battle of Lumphanan. His Lords chose Lulach as New King of
Scotland
.
1057
 
Lulach Tairbith
Macbeth died in the Battle of Lumphanan. His Lords chose Lulach as New King of
Scotland
.
1055
 
Gruffydd ap Llywelyn
A recognized claim of sovereignty of
Wales
.

*** more later ***
1051
 
Edward appointed a successor
The childless Edward the Confessor appointed William Duke of
Normandy
as his successor, because he was a grandson of King Aethelred II and Queen Emma. This event was the cause of
English
internal troubles. In particular with Godwine, as Earl of Wessex an important
English
Nobleman whose daughter had married King Edward.
1050
 
Emund the Old
Emund reigned for only a decade. Still though his rule was significant on two issues: religious and border-wise.
1049 ;  Count   Floris I of West-Frisia
Floris I succeeded his brother in a time of many territorial struggles.
1049
 
Floris I of West-Frisia
Floris I succeeded his brother as Count of
West-Frisia
in a time of many territorial struggles.
1049
 
 ⚔ 
The Battle of Hedeby
The
Norwegian
King Harald Hardrada burned Hedeby, a major trading place, in southern
Denmark
. Still,
Denmark
remained under control of King Sweyn II Estridsson.
1047
 
Harald III,  Hardrada
Kingdoms divided after the sudden death of Magnus; Harald III Sigurdsson (half-brother of Olaf Haraldsson), 1st of the House of Hardrada in
Norway
, was the year before already co-ruler with Magnus the Good. Although the
Norwegian
Viking
Age had already ended with Magnus, Harald was to become 'the last
Viking
'; not only because of his raid in
England
(1066), but because of his continuous actions in
Denmark
.
a Strategy Game:  Civilization VI
Harald Hardrada leads
Norway
.
1047
 
Sweyn II,   Estridsson
Kingdoms divided after the sudden death of Magnus; Sweyn II, a descendant of Cnut the Great, was crowned King of
Denmark.
He was going to reign for almost 30 years as 1st ruler of the House of Estridsen.
1042
 
Magnus I,   the Good
Magnus Olafsson, King of
Norway
, was also crowned King of
Denmark
. The succession was agreed upon in a peace treaty with Harthacnut; it ended the
Viking
-Age in 'Danelands'.
1042 ;  King   Edward;   the Confessor
Edward, son of Aethelred II the Unready and Emma of
Normandy
, was crowned King in the Cathedral of Winchester soon after the death of his half-brother Hartacnut. A revival, though the last of the House of Wessex (the West-Saxons); the last long-ruling
Anglo-Saxon
King.
1042
 
Edward;   the Confessor
Edward, son of Aethelred II the Unready and Emma of
Normandy
, was crowned King in the Cathedral of Winchester soon after the death of his half-brother Hartacnut. A revival, though the last of the House of Wessex (the West-Saxons); the last long-ruling
Anglo-Saxon
King.
1040 ;  King   Macbeth
Mac Bethad mac Findláich, mormaer of Moray, became the actual King of
Alba
(Gaelic name for
Scotland
) after the death of King Duncan I.
1040
 
Macbeth mac Findláich
Mac Bethad mac Findláich, mormaer of Moray, became the actual King of
Alba
(Gaelic name for
Scotland
) after the death of King Duncan I.
a Theatre Play:   Shakespeare's MacBeth
1040 ;  King   Harthacnut
The
Viking
King Harthacnut of
Denmark
(Cnut III) was offered the
English
Crown after the death of Harold Harefoot. He took along his army to be sure just in case problems would occur. Nevertheless, he ascended to the crown peacefully.
1040
 
Harthacnut
The
Viking
King Harthacnut of
Denmark
(Cnut III) was offered the
English
Crown after the death of Harold Harefoot. He took along his army to be sure just in case problems would occur. Nevertheless, he ascended to the crown peacefully.
1039 ;  Count   Dirk IV of West-Frisia
Like his father he fought for more land. And again, the armies of the
Holy Roman Empire
came to adjust the situation to their wishes; they ruthlessly destroyed
Rijnsburg.
1039
 
Dirk IV of West-Frisia
Like his father he fought for more land. And again, the armies of the
Holy Roman Empire
came to adjust the situation to their wishes; they ruthlessly destroyed
Rijnsburg.
1035 ;  Duke   William
William the Bastard, Robert's illegitimate son, was crowned Duke of
Normandy
. He, like his father, had to face many struggles therefore his period of reign was sort of a Civil War. Despite all this, he managed to enlarge his lands along the
French
coastline (e.g. Brittany) and allied with
Flanders
by marriage. Moreover, some 30 years later he invaded
England
and became a legend in history as William the Conqueror.
1035
 
William I, the bastard
William the Bastard, Robert's illegitimate son, was crowned Duke of
Normandy
. He, like his father, had to face many struggles therefore his period of reign was sort of a Civil War. Despite all this, he managed to enlarge his lands along the
French
coastline (e.g. Brittany) and allied with
Flanders
by marriage. Moreover, some 30 years later he invaded
England
and became a legend in history as William the Conqueror.
1035 ;  Count   Baldwin V
Baldwin had married Adela of
France
daughter of King Robert II (House of Capet) in 1028. Their two sons (Baldwin & Robert) both turned out to become Counts as well and their daughter Matilda an
Anglo-Norman
Queen Consort. He was buried in Lille in 1067.
1035
 
Baldwin V
Count Baldwin of
Flanders
played an important role in international politics (especially in
Frankia).
Not only because of his role as host for Queen Emma's Refuge but also because of his children; two sons (Baldwin & Robert) both turned out to become Counts as well and their daughter Matilda an
Anglo-Norman
Queen Consort.
1035
 
Magnus I,  the Good
Magnus Olafsson, an illegitimate son of Olaf Haraldsson, was proclaimed King of
Norway
. During his reign he wished to reunite the 'North Sea Empire'.
1035
 
Harthacnut
Harthacnut succeeded his father Cnut the Great as King of
Denmark
.
1035 ;  King   Harold I,   Harefoot
Cnut the Great had died.
Against the will of the
English
Church Harold was crowned. though, initially as proxy for his brother Harthacnut and as a consequence extending
Viking
Rule.
1035
 
Harold I,   Harefoot
Cnut the Great had died.
Against the will of the
English
Church Harold was crowned. though, initially as proxy for his brother Harthacnut and as a consequence extending
Viking
Rule.
1034 ;  King   Duncan I, An t-Ilgarach
Donnchadh mac Crìonain was not really contested by others and became King of
Alba
after the death of his grandfather Malcolm the Destroyer.
1034
 
Duncan I, An t-Ilgarach
Donnchadh mac Crìonain was not really contested by others and became King of
Alba
after the death of his grandfather Malcolm the Destroyer.
1032
 
Robert I, of Burgundy
Robert the Old was given the title Duke of the vassal-state
Burgundy
to prevent a civil war with his brother Henry King of the
Franks
. Because of lacking real authority over his own vassals, he would turn out to become a robber Baron.
1031 ;  King   Henry I
The 3rd Capetian King was crowned in 'la Cathédrale de Reims'. He ruled the
Franks
during a period of many territorial struggles.
1031
 
Henry I
The 3rd Capetian King was crowned in 'la Cathédrale de Reims'. He ruled the
Franks
during a period of many territorial struggles.
1030
 
 ⚔ 
Battle of Stiklestad
Olaf Haraldsson wanted to reclaim the
Norwegian
throne, though was defeated by a peasant army loyal to Cnut the Great (King of
England
,
Denmark
&
Norway
). A turning point; the
Norwegian
Viking
Age somehow diminished.
1028
 
 ⚔ 
Cnut,   the Great
Norway
was taken by Cnut the Great, King of
Denmark
and
England
, without any real resistance; Olaf Haraldsson was dethroned and fled with his family.
a Strategy Game:  Civilization II
Cnut II (aka Cnut The Great) leads the
Vikings
.
1027 ;  Duke   Robert I
Robert the Magnificent became Duke of
Normandy
after the death, with unclear conditions though, of his brother Richard III. Robert's reign was unstable and not really accepted by many Barons.
1027
 
Robert I
Robert the Magnificent became Duke of
Normandy
after the death, with unclear conditions though, of his brother Richard III. Robert's reign was unstable and not really accepted by many Barons.
1026 ;  Duke   Richard III
Richard, the eldest son of Richard II of
Normandy
, inherited the Norman Duchy. He repulsed an attack on the city of Falaise by his discontented brother Robert.
1026
 
Richard III
Richard, the eldest son of Richard II of
Normandy
, inherited the Norman Duchy. He repulsed an attack on the city of Falaise by his discontented brother Robert.
1026
 
 ⚔ 
Battle of Helgeå
A naval battle between an
Anglo-Danish
fleet, led by Cnut the Great, and a combined fleet of
Swedes
(Anund Jacob) and
Norwegians
(Olaf Haraldsson).
1022
 
Anund Jacob
Jacob, son of Olof Skötkonung, was selected by the
Swedish
Alþing and named Anund.
1018
 
 ⚔ 
Battle of 'Vlaardingen'
The
Holy Roman Empire
unsuccessfully attacked the rebellious
West-Frisia
ns. The first breakthrough for citizens in becoming independent and working towards an autonomous
Holland
.
1018
 
 ⚔ 
Battle of Carham
Malcolm the Destroyer defeated an
Anglo-Viking
army in Carham at the river Tweed (
Northumbria)
and hence extended Scottish rule; Lothian became
Scottish
at the time.
1018
 
Cnut II, the Great
Cnut's brother, Harald II, died; He, King of
England
, succeeded to the throne with only minor resistance involved in
Denmark
.
1016 ;  King   Cnut II, the Great
The
Viking
Cnut, son of Sveyn Forkbeard, took
England
but the South. Though, became King of all
England
when Edmund Ironside died.
1016
 
 ⚔ 
Cnut II, the Great
The
Viking
Cnut, son of Sveyn Forkbeard, took
England
but the South. Though, became King of all
England
when Edmund Ironside died.
1016 ;  King   Edmund Ironside
At the time when Aethelred II died Edmund was his oldest heir in lineage. He replaced his father as King of
England
valiantly, though, half a year later he died as well.
1016
 
Edmund Ironside
At the time when Aethelred II died Edmund was his oldest heir in lineage. He replaced his father as King of
England
valiantly, though, half a year later he died as well.
1015
 
Olaf II, Haraldsson
Olaf, son of Harald Grenske, worked on the recognition of the
Norwegian
identity, also emphasizing on its natural beauty. He was canonized at Nidaros as Saint Olaf about two years after his death.
1014
 
 ⚔ 
Battle of Clontarf
High King Brian Boru died. Though, because his army was victorious, this battle is considered a turning point in
Ireland
;
Viking
control started to diminish.
1014 ;  King   Aethelred II the Unready
The second time of Aethelred II's rule; he returned to
England
after Sweyn's death. Altogether his period of reign was long; the 1st period started in 978.
1014
 
Aethelred II the Unready
The second time of Aethelred II's rule; he returned to
England
after Sweyn's death. Altogether his period of reign was long; the 1st period started in 978.
1014
 
Harald II,  Sveynson
Harald, the youngest son of Sveyn Forkbeard's first marriage, became King of
Denmark
after the death of his father.
1013 ;  King   Sveyn Forkbeard
Sveyn Forkbeard, King of
Denmark
, and his ally Thorkell the Tall had invaded
England
on several occasions. Inhabitants feared him, and subsequently (the first)
Viking
Rule was a fact. Aethelred II the Unready fled to
Normandy
.
1013
 
 ⚔ 
Sveyn Forkbeard
The
Viking
Sveyn Forkbeard (already King of
Denmark
and
Norway
) and his ally Thorkell the Tall had invaded
England
more often. Though, on this occasion Aethelred II fled to
Normandy
; subsequently (the first)
Anglo-Viking
Rule in
England
was a fact.
1008
 
 ⚔ 
Finnish repelled Thorkell
Thorkell the Tall attacked the region of southern
Finland
. The King-to-be of
Norway
, Olaf Haraldsson, was thenadays one of Thorkell's
viking
warriors. Finnish tribesman repelled the attacking
Norsemen
.
1006
 
 ⚔ 
A Scottish attack repulsed
Uhtred of Bebbanburgh (
Bamburgh)
repelled a
Scottish
attack on
Durham
led by Malcolm II. Therefore he was given the title Aeldorman of
Northumbria
by Aethelred II the Unready.
1005 ;  Count   Dirk III of West-Frisia
He ruled
West-Frisia
until 1039 at the time a vassal state of the
Holy Roman Empire
.
1005
 
Dirk III of West-Frisia
He ruled
West-Frisia
until 1039 at the time a vassal state of the
Holy Roman Empire
.
1005 ;  King   Malcolm II, Forranach
Máel Coluim Mac Cináeda 'the destroyer' was going to be High King of the
Scots
for a period of almost 30 years.
1005
 
Malcolm II, Forranach
Máel Coluim Mac Cináeda was going to be High King of the
Scots
for a period of almost 30 years.
1002
 
 ⚔ 
St. Brice's Day massacre
King Aethelred II the Unready ordered all
Vikings
in
England
to be slain.
1000
 
  
Sveyn Forkbeard
Norway
was partitioned and came under control of the
Danish
Viking
King Sveyn Forkbeard.
1000
 
 ⚔ 
Battle of Svolder
Olaf Tryggvason, the King of
Norway
, was defeated in the naval Battle of Svolder (sea of Øresund) by the
Danish
Viking
King Sveyn Forkbeard.
996 ;  King   Robert II, the Pious
Robert, second of the House of Capet, co-ruled the
Franks
the first ten years together with his father Hugh Capet. From 1007 onwards he took on his eldest son Hugh-Magnus as his co-ruler. It didn't really work out well, because Hugh-Magnus, and both his other sons, turned against him.
996
 
Robert II, the Pious
Robert, second of the House of Capet, co-ruled the
Franks
the first ten years together with his father Hugh Capet. From 1007 onwards he took on his eldest son Hugh-Magnus as his co-ruler. It didn't really work out well, because Hugh-Magnus, and both his other sons, turned against him.
996 ;  Duke   Richard II
During his period of reign as Duke Richard of
Normandy
, he strengthened the bond with Brittany by means of two marriages. And, although King Aethelred II of
England
had attacked Contentin (unsuccessfully though), he improved their relation as well; again by means of marriage (his sister Emma with King Aethelred II).
996
 
Richard II, the Good
During his period of reign as Duke Richard of
Normandy
, he strengthened the bond with Brittany by means of two marriages. And, although King Aethelred II of
England
had attacked Contentin (unsuccessfully though), he improved their relation as well; again by means of marriage (his sister Emma with King Aethelred II).
995
 
Olof Skötkonung
The son of Eric the Victorious combined götaland (land of Geats) with Svealand (land of Swedes) and hence was the first King of
Sweden
; a turning point concerning
Swedish
participation in
Viking
raids elsewhere.
991
 
 ⚔ 
Battle of Maldon
Another
Viking
invasion in
Essex
(where the East-Saxons resided); Aethelred II the Unready had to pay tribute (Danegeld).
987 ;  Count   Baldwin IV
Baldwin (Flemish; Boudewijn) the Bearded ruled
Flanders
for almost half a century. His mother Rozala of
Italy
acted as regent during his childhood.
987
 
Baldwin IV
Baldwin (Flemish; Boudewijn) the Bearded ruled
Flanders
for almost half a century. His mother Rozala of
Italy
acted as regent during his childhood.
987 ;  King   Hugh Capet
The King of
West-Frankia,
Louis V, had died suddenly. Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks and Count of Paris, suggested his son Hugh Capet as successor; and, indeed he was selected. He is now looked at as the founder of the House of Capet (which would last in
France
for centuries).
987
 
Hugh Capet
The King of
West-Frankia,
Louis V, had died suddenly. Hugh the Great, Duke of the Franks and Count of Paris, suggested his son Hugh Capet as successor; and, indeed he was selected. He is now looked at as the founder of the House of Capet (which would last in
France
for centuries).
986 ;  King   Sveyn Forkbeard
Sveyn, son of the
Norwegian
Viking
King Harald Bluetooth, was a brutal ruler. After having campaigned against his own father, he violently took the throne of
Denmark
.
986
 
 ⚔ 
Sveyn Forkbeard
Sveyn, son of the
Norwegian
Viking
King Harald Bluetooth, was a brutal ruler. After having campaigned against his own father, he violently took the throne of
Denmark.
978 ;  King   Aethelred II the Unready
The first period of reign by Aethelred II.
978
 
Aethelred II the Unready
The first period of reign by Aethelred II.
Column  1
   EUROPE;   IBERIA


Portugal Spain
Column  2
   EUROPE;   WEST;   CENTRAL
Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg France
Column  3
   EUROPE;   BRITISH   ISLES
Scotland Ireland Wales England
Column  4
   EUROPE;   NORTH
Iceland Norway Denmark Sweden Finland
development message:

The EARLY MEDIEVAL ERA is not yet planned for construction


development message:

The LATE MEDIEVAL ERA is not yet planned for construction

All (default)
Scotland
Burgundy
Vikings
Ireland
Aquitaine
Norway
Wales
Gascony
Denmark
England
Spain
Sweden
Angevin Empire
Aragon
Finland
Anglo-Normans
Castile
Iceland
Normandy
Leon
Flanders
France
Portugal
Frisia / Holland
Anjou
Crusades
development message:

The CIVILIZATION-selection-system is yet under construction

1500
late medieval era
1300
high medieval era
1000
early medieval era
500
1300
1250
1200
1150
1100
1060
1030
1000